|Languages||German, Hungarian (official); Croatian, Slovene, Bosnian|
|Religion||Catholic, Orthodox, Judaism, Sunni Islam|
federal presidental republic
- President: Stephen Deutsch
|Area||397.838 sq km|
|Population||33.810.200 (est. 1847)|
The Austro-Hungarian Republic' (also known as Federal Republic of Austria and Hungary, or siply Austria-Hungary) is a dual state in Central Europe, formed in 1846, after the Austrian Civil War of 1844-45. The country is bordered with Bavaria, Lichtenstein and Switzerland to the west, Bohemia-Moravia, and Slovakia-Moravia to the north, Romania to the east and Serbia, Italy and the Adriatic Sea to the south. It has a 1851 km long coastline, with the important cities of Trieste, Koper, Fiume, Split, Dubrovnik and Ploce. The republic is divided into two States, 19 Regions and one Autonomous Region (Bosnia).
The Austro-Bosnian War
In 1843 the mighty Austrian empire, ruled by the Habsburg emperors attacked the weak country of Bosnia, who decalred independence from the former Serbian Empire in 1841, and has not got any organized military forces. The Bosnian army was defeated in the Battle of Sarajevo, but the capital city prepared to the siege, which lasted for a year. After the falling of the city, only 76.000 was alive of the original 100.000 men strong Austrian army. Bosnia was annexed on 3th January 1844, but the troubles weren't end.
After the winning of the bloody war, Czech and Slovak nationalists proclaimed the independent republic of Bohemia-Slovakia. The Imperial Army marched to supress them, but they failed. Seeing their failure, other little nations, such as Italians and Romanians rose up too, and their home nation supported them with money and troops. The Italian Habsburg lands and Transylvania were lost to the intervening armies. After this, the Revolution of Vienna broke out, and the Habsburgs were executed, and the Republic of Austria was proclaimed. The Hungarian regiments separated from the slowly dissolving Imperial Army, and marched to the capital. They signed an alliance pact with the Austrian rebels, and started negotiations about an Austro-Hungarian federal states.
Later, the armies were reorganised, and repelled the Czechoslovak armies. Meanwhile, the Bohemian leadership was moved from the power, and the new government wanted an independent Bohemia-Moravia, rather than the union with the Slovaks. They signed a ceasefire with the Austro-Hungarians in August 1844, so does the Slovaks. (After this, the Moravian War broke out between Slovakia and Bohemia, and ended with the splitting of Moravia in October 1844.) On 12th October 1844 the peace treaty of Venice was signed with Italy and Romania, who annexed their conquers.
In 1846 the Austrian and Hungarian leaders wrote the consitution for the future dual state, and a caretaker government was formed. This was the Congress of Vienna. Meanwhile, Bosnians started rebelling, but the caretaker government gave them autonomy, so the war never broke out. The army was reformed from the Austrian and Hungarian troops, and reached the size of 60.000. On 7th October the Federal Republic of Austria and Hungary was finally proclaimed.
The country is divided into two States and 24 Regions:
- State of Austria
- Lower Austria
- Upper Austria
- State of Hungary
- Western Transdanubia
- Eastern Transdanubia
- Southern Hungary
- Central Hungary
- Vajdaság (Vojvodina)
- Northern Hungary
- Northern Plains
- Southern Plains
- Central Croatia
- Lower Croatia
- Felvidék (South Slovakia)
And into two Autonomous Region:
- Autonomous Region of Bosnia
- Autonomous Region of Slovakia
Government and politics
The National Governments
The two States have their own ministers of interior, industry, agriculture, inner trade, national development, national resources and justice. They are elected directly for five years. The leaders of the national governments are the prime ministers, who are responding to the president. The members of the national governments can be only elected from the nation they will govern. So a Hungarian-born man cannot be an Austrian minister.
The Common Government
The ministers of finance, defense and foreign affairs are common. They can be both Hungarian or Austrian, and are elected directly for five years, like the national ones. They are responsible to the president too, and are monitored by the Senate.
The President of the Austro-Hungarian Republic is the head of the state and of the common government. He is elected by the Senate for five years. If the 66% of the Senate wants, the President should resign.
The unicameral Senate is the legislature of the Federation. Its members are the senators, who are elected for five years. Every Region elects 20 senators, who are represent it at the Senate. The laws, which are voted by the Senate are binding to the whole country.
In the Senate:
- Austro-Hungarian Conservative Party (63): Right-winged conservatives, the second biggest party of the Senate, but two of the three common ministers are from this. Their main goal is to protect the national identities of Austrians and Hungarians, and the reclaiming of the territories of Slovakia and Bohemia.
- Common Liberal Party (69): A centralist liberal party. Currently they have the most mandates in the Senate. Their goal is to protect the human rights and to make th Federation an economical power.
- Movement For the Rightful Lands (76): Far-right irredentist party.
- Hungary to the Top: Small party, which wants Hungary to dominate in the Union. They are popular in the undeveloped regions of Hungary.
- Workers' Socialist Party of Austria and Hungary (42): Far-left winged political party, following communist ideas.
- Farmers' Party(52): Left-winged socialist party, supported by the mostly Hungarian farmers.
- United Party of Conservative Nobles (22): Small lef-winged neofeudal party, supported by the nobles. They are gaining force since the elections of 1847.
The two parts of the Armed Forces is the Austro-Hungarian Army, and the Austro-Hungarian Navy. Around 100.000 men are serving in the Armed Forces.
The army is built up from the followings:
1120 (5100 men)
This is 156,575 men.
The navy contains one ship of line, five frigates, ten nasades, and ten transport ships, each of them are designed to carry 1000 men. They're full crew is 10.000 men.