This game is a work in progress.
Welcome to Settlers of the New World, a map game based on the early years of English colonization of the Americas, and the establishment of colonies, settlements, and later American states. This game will begin in the early seventeenth century, and allow you the opportunity to play as a trade company or proprietor of a colony in the (alternate) new world.
The charters section has been reorganized. I noticed that most players are not updating their colonies in the signup section, and prefer to use their own pages, so to better organize this section the old style of signups will be posted on the talk page for reference, and you can continue to update your colonies there, or simply use your colony's page.
To join the game you can either create your own colony from scratch or claim one of the following colonies that is already created but unclaimed. For more information on these colonies be sure to read previous turns or ask a moderator for help. To claim a colony simply sign your name next to it.
- Nova Cambria (Northern/Canadian Colony) - Deadpoolisbetterthanbatman
- Blackwall (Middle Colony) -
- New Berkshire (Northern Colony) -
- New Haven (Northern Colony) -User:Malik syafiq
- Carolina (Southern colony) - Wallyparker (talk) 19:18, May 1, 2018 (UTC)
- Strafford Bay - Vandenhoek (talk)
- Nauset Bay Charter - Zsasza
- Flaadland - Zamarak500 (talk) 02:10, April 14, 2018 (UTC)
- New Britain - Kingconor
- Unamia - Thecoldmalsyw (talk)
- Strafford Bay Charter: Having received his royal charter Lord Strafford begins raising men for a voyage to the area. Generous land grants are given out to attract settlers. Specifically settlers are promised fifty acres of land for each person they bring to the colony, including indentured servants and slaves. Elsewhere many Catholics are attracted by the promise of religious freedom, including some Catholic aristocrats and merchants. Thomas Wentworth elects to remain in England for now, but dispatches his younger brother George to lead the expedition. In total about 300 people are recruited for the initial voyage, departing on three ships; Ark, Dove, and Rose. They depart in November and arrive in the New World on 26 March 1621, at the southern coast of an island near "Strafford Bay". They stay here temporarily, and call the island Providence Island, while scouting out the surround area. Eventually they come to a defensible position in the north and begin constructing a settlement in late April, known as Trenton. They find that the natives are friendly in this region, and trade commences with them. The group quickly works on constructing shelters and defenses, as George Wentworth is fearful of a possibly harsh winter. The settlement is constructed on a relatively flat hill known as Cole Hill. Approximately a year later another two ships manage to find the settlement at Trenton, who were tasked with finding another location for a trade post and settlement. They found the settlement of "Weymouth" further north up the "Strafford River". In 1623 more ships arrive, this time bringing the first cattle to the colony at Trenton. Several plantations are created south of Weymouth and south of Trenton. An outpost is established north of Trenton across the Congaratan River, known as Charlestown. In total about 800 people settle in the Strafford Bay colony by the end of 1625.
- Nauset Bay Company: A group of settlers from England, including some 100 Puritan Separatists, 50 other Protestant settlers, and 40 crew members, soldiers, etc, set sail from Plymouth for the New World, having been granted the Nauset Bay region by royal charter. The group lands on the easternmost part of the nearby peninsula, but continue along the coast. They discover a large peninsula jutting north, connected by a narrow neck. Luckily the area's natives had largely abandoned the peninsula due to disease outbreak, and the settlers are able to land here without incident. A small fort is established in the south, and a wall is built across the narrow neck, cutting off the peninsula from the mainland. This more or less leaves the entire peninsula safe from intrusion, and the settlers begin building homes further north along the coast. The city is named Cambridge after the English city of the same name. Although the winter of 1620/1621 causes heavy losses for the unprepared settlers, by 1621 they manage to establish themselves and begin trading with the natives for food and aid. Approximately 140 of the original settlers remain, and this number is brought up to 250 by late 1621, as more settlers arrive. In 1622 another group arrives and establishes an independent colony to the west, called Concord. The location proves to be a strategic one, and the river is named the Charles River after the reigning monarch. A town called Charlestown is founded across from Concord, which grows in size after a fort is constructed there to guard the river. By 1625 the population of Oxford manages to grow to 350, while neighboring Concord and Charlestown reach 200 and 100 respectively. A few also venture down the Charles River, discovering that it continues far to the north.
Full Map: https://imgur.com/1FAIOLq
It is discovered that the Dutch have managed to establish a settlement known as New Amsterdam, located between England's two colonies. This colony as a whole becomes known as New Netherlands.
The French establish several trade posts along the St. Denis River in the north, including the settlement of Louisbourg.
- London Company: The London Company is founded as a joint stock company in London, England. The company attracts a number of wealthy businessmen and merchants, who select Thomas Gates, formerly of the East India Company, as the company's first leader. Approximately 1,800 people become investors in the company, and these funds are used to purchase supplies and ships for an expedition. The company receives a royal charter for the area "north of Strafford Bay". In 1626 the first expedition of 190 men departs from England, landing in a swampy region. The group travels up river to a defensible spot, and begins building a fort to defend themselves. They call the settlement Blackwall. After about a year the colony established well enough to begin dealing with the native population surrounding the English. After a shakey first year with the natives, all out war breaks out in 1627. Additional men and women arrive in the colony, and by 1630 about 350 people reside in the colony. Meanwhile a second expedition is commissioned by the London Company to explore further south. William Burke is selected to lead the expedition, in search of a second location to settle.
- Flaadland Royal Charter: The newly crowned King Charles the First (crowned in 1625) learned of Covenanters agitating in Scotlands. He decide to send them to the New World, hoping to both get rid of them and colonize new lands for his kingdoms. Charles chose Sir Thomas MacEalar, a Scot loyal to the crown, to lead the expedition, giving him a Charter over a small region and making him the governor of whatever new colony the Covenanters would create. About 400 Scottish Presbyterians make the trip accross the sea in 1627, although only 352 will made it alive. In 1628, they land at the end of a river. The leader of the covenanters, a priest named Donald Woodwick, chose the exact spot of the landing, and name this land Fladdland (Alan Fitz Flaad was the ancestor of House Stuart). Keeping with the idea, MacEalar name the settlement Roberttown, after the first Stuart King of the Scots Robert II . Quickly, problems arrise in the new settlement as Donald Woodwick become far more influencal among the settlers than MacEalar. The Governor find himself almost powerless, with the inhabitants of Roberttown turning to Woodwick asking if they should obey MacEalar's orders or not. In 1830, Governor MacEalar send a letter to the king, in which he nervously ask a few troops alongside the next batch of settlers, so that he could quell the influence of Woodwick.
- Strafford Bay Charter: The primary settlement at Trenton continues to grow and attract more settlers. The initial fortification in the north end becomes heavily congested, and some of the older houses are demolished and replaced with new brick homes, becoming the first in the colony. Trenton proper is surrounded by a new wooden wall to help defend the settlement, which connects in the north end to the original fort. Additionally the southern part of the city sees growth as a commercial district takes hold. Much of the rest of the settlement remains agricultural. A dirt road is created stretching along the entire border of the eastern most wall, called Wall Street, and this street is continued about two miles south from the city limits. The area along this street and stretching west to the sea becomes the site of plantations. Several wealthy individuals who were able to bring a large number of slaves, servants, and family members are able to claim this territory. The outpost across the river in the north sees growth as well, and is rechristened as Mariapolis, after the king's spouse, a Roman Catholic. Henry Pendleton is selected as judge of the settlement. To the east a new outpost is created further up river, which becomes known as Essex.
The settlers at Flaadland discover that the river near Roberttown continues much further inland than previously thought, and discover a series of lakes upriver.
William Burke's expedition returns to England having mapped out the far south. He returns with knowledge of the southern coast for the London Company's use. With this knowledge the king decides to extend the London Company's charter so that it includes the area "north from Blackwall" and "all land south of the 35th parallel" (the region beginning several miles south of Flaadland).
Native raids damage Blackwall, and as a result soldiers are dispatched to the London Company's colony, and well as to Flaadland as requested, although in small number.
- London Company: The initial colony at Blackwall continues to grow and prove successful, however, the strain of native attacks makes the colony not as profitable as first hoped. The news from William Burke changes the company's direction, as it appears the south is far more promising, especially when it is discovered that tobacco grows well in the region. A settlement is created in this new territory, south of the "Burke River", called Norfolk. As more and more settlers and investors are attracted to the company, some 600 settlers arrive in Norfolk from 1630 to 1632. The colony is situated on a small peninsula surrounded on three sides by the Atlantic Ocean/nearby bay, the mouth of the Burke River, and a western river, which connects to a larger river extending far to the west. This larger river becomes known as the James River, leading into the smaller Norfolk Bay. The settlement grows along the coast of the Burke and Norfolk, with large tobacco plantations extending to the south and southeast. One of the most wealthy investors in the London Company, William Somers, manages to buy a large land grant on the opposite shore of the James River, and manages to lead his own expedition for the London Company to this section, which he calls Somersburg. A fort is constructed and a small settlement, while plantations are set up expending far to the north. It is discovered that the settlement is on a narrow peninsula, sandwiched between the James River and a northern one, which is called the August River. John West is appointed governor of Blackwall, while William Burke is appointed governor of Norfolk. Despite this Burke begins raising interest for more exploration and settlement further upriver.
- Flaadland Royal Charter: In early 1630, the Covenanter David Leary is the first to explore the full extent of the river, which lead to a lake. During his trip, Leary discover natives living on both shores of the river west of the settlement, but does his best to evade contact with them. When he come back to Roberttown, Leary is acclaimed as a hero by his fellow Covenanters. Woodwick demand that the river be called the Leary River from now on. MacEalar is forced to concede the demand, by is able to get that the lake be called Bruce Lake (after Robert the Bruce, King of the Scots). Later that year, MacEalar discover that King Charles did not listen to his demand, not sending any troops with the newly arrived settlers (once again composed of Covenanters Charles wanted to get rid of). Still, those new settlers double the size of Roberttown. The town is expanded toward the sea, but so far doesn’t expand on the southern shore of the Leary River. In 1631, first contacts between the natives (calling themselves the Sakawes) and the Covenanters are made. Against orders of MacEalar, Woodwick encourage Covenanters to go east and attack the Sakawe village on the northern shore of the river. David Leary form a militia and begin patrolling the river by July 1831, attacking any Sakawe boat trying to travel between the southern and northern villages. In 1632, this little “war” goes out of hand on the day of Pentecost (20 Mai). Woodwick a group of armed Covenanters to the northern Sakawe village. The ensuing battle, which is referred as the “Victory of the White Day” saw the Covenanters expulse the Sakawe from their village and push them to the southern side of Leary River. Celebrating the day, a settlement is quickly founded on the ruins of the Sakawe village, named Craigmouth (after John Craig, considered the founder of the Covenanters). Although this blatant disregard for his authority anger MacEalar, this assault is the excuse he finally needed to ask the king for troops, saying it is to protect the settlers from the native. The new Covenanters exiled (this time people disgusted by Charles’s Anglican coronation as King of Scotland) arrive in late 1633. But the governor is dismayed to find that the troops coming with the new Covenanters are nowhere near what he asked, being only a dozen of troops. This show that King Charles either did not care about MacEalar’s problems or believed that his governor exaggerated the threat of the natives. But MacEalar still try to get Roberttown under control. On Christmas 1833, three Covenanters are arrested for “Disturbing the public peace. Realizing he could not keep them here, MacEalar deported them to Blackwall, alongside with a letter for John West explaining his situation. Following this Christmas arrest, the arrest of a man accused of stealing from a soldier cause a protest lead by Woodwick. Although the man is found guilty, tensions begin to rise between Leary’s militia, as the criminal was a militiaman, and the troops. Once again, MacEalar deport the criminal to Blackwall. He also put Leary in charge of Craigmouth, using this to get rid of the militia leader. The militia quickly fall apart with their leader gone, although they still keep their guns and follow Woodwick. Still, by April 1634 the King’s law is being applied without any issues. As long as the King doesn’t do anything to anger the Covenanters in England, the local Covenanters should stay in line.
- Strafford Bay Colony: Dismayed by the encroaching London Company into the Strafford Bay charter, the local government at Trenton elects to send surveyors and explorers to formally chart out the colony's territorial claims. The head of the expedition, John Radcliffe, marks an inlet approximately half way between Weymouth and Roberttown as the formal southern border, and calls it Radcliffe Inlet. Meanwhile traders travel up the Congaratan River and establish trade posts in native territory. Trade increases when news arrives that the nearby Blackwall settlers have initiated war with the same tribe of natives, and we refrain from selling weapons to the natives in order to not inadvertently hurt other Englishmen. Work begins on creating a proper dock in north Trenton after a large investment from several English merchants, and after receiving the support of the town's inhabitants.
- Nauset Bay Colony: A pastor and educator named James Locke founds the first university in the English colonies, known as Locke University, located in central Cambridge. Although small, thanks to donations from Locke and other Englishmen, in 1633 the school obtains the first printing press in the colonies, and constructs a small campus. The city itself quickly grows ad before long much of the small peninsula, bounded by the southern defensive wall, is well settled. As the Northend becomes more urban, the city sets aside a plot of land to become the Cambridge Common. Elsewhere most of the farms of the settlement move south and west, including south of the city limits. The city also begins construction of a dock in the most densely populated part of the town, albeit much smaller than any European city. In 1634 another group of settlers arrives independent of the Cambridge contingent, and lands on the southern shore of the peninsula southeast of Cambridge. They settle a fort here, and within a year plantations spring up around it. The settlement is christened Portsmouth.
The Swedish South Company founds a colony known as New Sweden south of New Netherlands, settling along the “South River”. The main fort in the region is the settlement of Christina, located at the river’s mouth. Additionally Swedish explorers follow the river upriver, and also chart out the nearby coast more accurately.
In 1637 Charles I imposes a Book of Common Prayer in Scotland, leading to riots and opposition in the National Covenant. After initial attempts to quell the unrest fails, armed conflict breaks out in 1639 and a few skirmishes take place in northern England. A treaty is signed in Berwick, which temporarily ensures peace into the end of the year, however, both sides continue to raise troops and prepare for war.
- Flaadland Royal Colony: (OOC: I put it down in multiple paragraphes because it was a long post, so I though it would be better in multiples dots than just one big paragraph. Should be shorter next posts.)
- In early 1635, a new group of settlers arrived, this time bigger than the last two (so about 600 people). The reason for this bigger number was that alongside the 400 Covenanters that were expected, King Charles sent 200 Englishmen. According to Charles’s letter, those were English Presbyterians, but Governor MacEalar had difficulty believing it and highly suspected those were Anglicans. The Englishmen settled in Roberttown, alongside the majority of the Covenanters. However, about 50 of them, led by Elder (basically priest for Presbyterians, from what I read) Henry MacValen, who settled a couple of miles north of Roberttown, calling it New Falkirk (after the Battle of Falkirk, famous battle of Wiliam Wallace against England). The new community built its own rural community, based around the church of MacValen. It seemed that MacValen was imitating Woodwick, who was both the religious leader of Roberttown and its biggest landowner, having the people of his congregation working his fields.
- MacEalar suspicions about the English settlers were confirmed when two months after their arrival, they asked him for the permission to build their own church in the community. Although aware that this would anger the Covenanters, he also knew that Charles probably sent them for this exact reason, and so was forced to go along with the king’s plan. This caused massive protests in Roberttown, and soon Covenanters began hindering the construction of the building. With the Covenanter refusing to build the church and the Anglicans too occupied with their daily life, MacEalar had to use the soldiers to build the church, which was only completed by mid-1636. To stop Woodwick from immediately torching it, MacEalar organized a meeting with the religious leader. In exchange of letting the church be, Woodwick and other Elders would receive massive land rights around Roberttown. The first meeting was inconclusive however, but they finally reached a deal when MacEalar added the right for David Leary to reform his militia, although it had to stay in Craigmouth. Still, the life between the two communities was full of tensions. On the New Year celebration of 1637, things finally exploded when a drunk Englishman raped a Covenanter woman. Angered, Woodwick and the Covenanters called for blood. They torched the church, and in the ensuing chaos the Anglican priest and two other men were killed. MacEalar, angered that Woodwick did not uphold his end of the bargain, had the leader arrested by the troops, although he was forced to release him two days later due to pressures from the populace. The Anglicans, seeing they had no place in Robberttown, moved east and built their own settlement on the coast of where the Leary River and the Atlantic Sea meet (on the north side). They provocatively called their new town Longshank (after King Edward Longshank, who invaded Scotland).
- MacEalar, who hoped that those Anglicans would be the last bad surprise from Charles, was dismayed when he received the Book on Common Prayer. The King hoped that imposing it in the colonies would put pressure on the Covenanters in Scotland. But MacEalar, himself a Scot and a Presbyterian (although not a Covenanter) refused to do it, instead sending a letter of resignation. Ironically, the governor who was hated for most of his time in Flaadland was now celebrated as a hero by Woodwick in Roberttown and Leary in Craigmouth for his refusal. The small road between Craigmouth and Roberttown was even renamed the MacEalar Road. MacEalar stayed in office until the arrival of his replacement in February 1838. Thomas MacEalar would then go back to England and never return to the new world. Although he would support the crown during the ensuing Bishop’s Wars, his personal hatred for Charles pushed him to side with the parliamentarians during the English Civil War, and he would even serve in the New Model Army. He would die in 1856, at the age of 67, as a fervent follower of Cromwell.
- MacEalar replacement was William Barton, 3rd Baron of Endon. Endon was and Englishman and an Anglican, sent by Charles especially to apply the book of prayers. With him came new settlers, mostly Covenanters refusing the Book of Common Prayer (which is ironic, considering what that they travelled with the man supposed to impose it in Flaadland). Along with them was soldiers, sent by Charles I to help Endon push the book on the populace. Endon’s first mistake was to land in Longshank instead of Roberttown. From there, he moved to Roberttown, where he was met with a cold welcome, although Woodwick did come greet him in the name of the community. Even with his troops, Endon realized that it would be difficult to force the book on Roberttown, and so instead chose to start with the far smaller village of New Falkirk. Troops were sent to force the Covenanters under MacValen to accept the Book of Common Prayer. The elder initialy refused, but finally relented when Endon threatened to have him deported and his church burned, “to equal what happened in Roberttown”. However, MacValen still criticized both the book and Endon during secret covenants with his communities. In Roberttown, Endon began imposing a massive tax on the religious landowners who controlled the farms (like Woodwick and MacValen), which would be removed if they accepted the Book of Common Prayers. Endon also put financial pressure on the people living on those lands, so that they would themselves push their Elders to accept it. Because of this, some of the poorest people lost their homes, which were then either seized by the religious landowners or by the colonial government of Endon, whoever could get them first.
- Then, the Bishops’s Wars happened. As soon as he heard about what was happening in England, Endon impose massive censorship all over Flaadland. But like usual, the information eventually slipped through, and the Covenanters in the colonies quickly learned what their European brothers were doing. As soon as they learned of this, many habitants of Flaadland packed their bags and went to Europe to fight, including some who had just arrived. The Flaadland volunteers ranged from a few dozens to a hundred, depending on the sources. They would remain in England from 1639 to 1846, the end of the First English Civil War. At home, Woodwick began organising marches in Roberttown in support of the Scottish Covenanters. During a march in July 1639, Woodwick publicly burned a copy of the Book of Common Prayers on the central place right in front of the governor’s mansion. The following day, Endon sent troops to arrest many Covenanter agitators, arresting almost 30 peoples in two weeks. An attempt was made to imprison Woodwick, but it failed due to the people who blocked the soldiers. In October 1639, Endon was beginning to seriously fear for his life, and so moved with half of his garrison to Longshank. The soldiers left in town were under the command of Captain Oliver Resley, who had orders to keep the population under control, but to not provoke them. Endon then called for David Leary to send his militia as reinforcement for Captain Resley, but the letter he received back made it blatantly clear that Leary would only receive orders from “the people, fellow believer Donald Woodwick or the King of Scotland and his parliament”, a list that did not include Endon. So things were heating up in Flaadland as battles were fought in the British Isles. And things would only get worst with 1640.
- South Nauset/Unamia Colony: A Puritan minister and theologian living in Cambridge, Nauset Bay named John Winthrop causes controversy within the colony after preaching religious tolerance and freedom, separation of church and state, and other practices which inadvertently criticized the strict Puritan regime in Nauset Bay. He is formally banished in 1635, but by then had already been planning on an exodus south of the colony's borders, to create his own colony for his small band of followers and religious dissenters. He travels south of Concord until he arrives at a small inlet, where he begins building a settlement. Meanwhile, Winthrop's son, John Winthrop the Younger, and a few of Winthrop's wealthiest supporters, travel to England, where they manage to do some recruiting. They manage to get the attention of the Earl of Warwick, who agrees to issue an official order of protection for the colony and a great deal of financial support. As a result Winthrop the Younger arrives back in the settlement in late 1636 with a few hundred settlers, mostly fellow religious dissenters. The settlement is named Warwick after the group's English patron. The group works extensively with the local native population, focusing on trade and peaceful relations, and even going as far as to legally purchase all of their land from the local sachem, named Canonicus by the English. They also name their colony/region after the local natives, calling the land "Unamia". Within a few years the success of the new settlement draws the attention of fellow Puritans in Nauset Bay. Thomas Davenport leads a few hundred men south into Unamian territory, settling "Davenport" to the northeast. Many others follow making smaller plantations. Rather than fight the new settlers, Winthrop welcomes them, but persuades them into signing allegiance to him, on account of their colonies technically being unsanctioned by the crown. They agree, and in 1639 the Unamia Constitution is signed, loosely uniting the region under Winthrop's authority, and forcing all to recognize religious freedom, and other rights. Also in 1639, an independent expedition of 200 people sets sail from England after being persuaded to join the Unamia colony, but mistakenly sails much further south, landing well north of Nauset Bay. Nonetheless the group decides to settle there anyway, despite having no claim to that territory, and the town of Portland is born, also loosely affiliated with Winthrop's government.
- Zamarak (OOC): Since when is the Nauset Bay Colony a Puritan regime? I though they were religious tolerant and pro-freedom.
- The Nauset Bay turns say they are Puritans, and it says they're separatists in the sign-up section. - Thecoldmalsyw
- Zamarak (OOC): Ok, thanks for the clarification.
- London Company: The new colonies in the far south prove to be profitable and successful once tobacco plantations are established. As such the company focuses almost all efforts in the south, leaving Blackwall mostly to its own devices. A few shipments of slaves also arrive, although in small numbers, to work the plantations. Many however continue to be worked by indentured servants or hired work. More settlers arrive in Norfolk and the town grows all along the coast. As much of the inland territory is already divided among the plantation owners, some of the townspeople elect to cross the small inlet west of the city and settle on the opposite shore, and the town of Avalon is born. Others settle the small stretch of unclaimed land north of the town, known as Cape Henry, although in much smaller numbers. The first officially sanctioned settlement by the company, however, doesn’t come until 1636, when a new expedition of settlers is sent up the Burke River to flat, hospitable section along a new river. The settlement is called Lincoln, and quickly grows in size, as it has the company’s full backing and support, and by now the allure of making a “quick fortune” in the southern colonies attracts (and/or tricks) a large pool of eager settlers. An assembly is called in Norfolk to formalize the loose grouping of settlements in the area, and the representatives select the name New Britain, the name that had initially been used by early explorers in the late sixteenth century for the entire length of the east coast. Company veteran Matthew White is selected as the overall governor of New Britain, a decision approved by Thomas Gates in England, The new governor and the representatives agree to a system where each town over a certain population may create an official town council, which will be led by a president/judge. William Burke, at the end of his term as governor of Norfolk under the old system, resigns to focus on a new project and is instead appointed to a largely honorary deputy position in the government. In the meantime his former captain John Dale is appointed judge of Norfolk, while Francis Harvey is appointed judge of Lincoln. Burke goes on to secure funding for another voyage of exploration, and this time receives a large backing from the London Company and other investors. He sets sail in search of the southern edge of North America. Meanwhile in Blackwall governor John West’s autonomy only increases, and he begins work on attracting his own wealthy plantation owners to the northern settlement. The deported men from Flaadland arrive and are allowed to stay and work in the settlement. Although West doesn’t appreciate being used as a penal colony by the more rowdy colonies, he can’t refuse a chance to recruit a few more veteran militiamen, bolstering the town’s defense in the war with the local natives.
- Strafford Bay Colony: Thomas Wentworth immediately travels from Ireland to the king's side in London upon hearing news of the unrest in northern England, becoming one of the king's trusted advisors. The Earl of Strafford and the king hastily attempt to raise funds for an army throughout 1639, but eventually are forced to call on parliament the following year. In the meantime Wentworth also makes preparations to flee to the colonies should the situation turn dire, and seems to be in a position to negotiate as much with parliament. In the Strafford Bay Thomas' brother continues to be quite popular and competent at governing, and the town of Trenton continues to grow. After surveying the southern portion of the colony, some settlers are sent from Trenton to settle "Radcliffe" in order to further solidify our claim. Meanwhile some scout out Providence Island and discover a nearby island as well further south.
- Nauset Bay Colony: Renovations take place all across Cambridge to transform the northend into a more urban environment, including the areas around the Cambridge Common, Locke University, and other landmarks. As the town itself becomes more densely populated, more settlers migrate south and west to more rural areas. The area directly south of Cambridge is converted into a series of plantations centered around a small town, which is incorporated as "Salem". The town connects Cambridge to Portsmouth, and a road is built between the three. Similar developments occur south of Concord, where the area just south of the swampy fens area is settled as "Leominster Heights". In addition to the minor towns/rural areas sprouting up, a settlement is founded to the northeast of Cambridge, called Rockport. In 1640 the Puritan authority in Cambridge issues orders to the other settlements establishing a governmental hierarchy, with John Bradford being selected as the governor of the entire colony.
After negotiations break down in the beginning of the year, another battle breaks out between the Scots and English in the north of England, resulting in a Scottish victory. Charles I is forces to recall Parliament, which passes the Triennial Act, forbidding the king from dissolving Parliament without their consent.
An Irish rebellion breaks out in 1641 when the Irish Catholic gentry attempts to seize control of the administration in Ireland.
In 1642 Charles I attempts to arrest certain members of the House of Commons. When this fails the king flees London, and the country falls into civil war.
William Burke's expedition maps out the south, and makes contact with the Spanish possession of Florida, thus finding the end of the east coast.
- Flaadland Royal Colony: OOC: Well, it seems I made a mistake when I said my next post would be shorter...
- In the early weeks of 1640, things continued to grow worst in Roberttown. Woodwick was organizing more and more marches through the town, and soon Covenanters were openly disobeying orders from Captain Resley and his troops. The news of the restart of the war in England only aggravated the tensions. A protest soon turned into a riot as some protesters threw rocks at the soldiers. Sick of this, Resley ordered to soldiers to fire one salvo on the crowd. The casualties were 5 deaths and 13 wounded. Although the protesters retreated, this was the last straw. The following night, Woodwick organized a secret covenant within his church. During that meeting he praised the courage of his Scottish brethren in Europe, and claimed that they themselves had to fight the tyranny of King Charles for the good of Scotland, England and the colonies. Then, things turned to chaos. When Endon received news from Roberttown two weeks later, he learned to his horror that the Covenanter stormed the armory and then fought their way to the garrison’s barrack. This resulted into intense fighting that lasted four days. Although the English troops were far more trained, they were outnumbered by the Covenanters. After Resley was wounded by a bullet, they surrendered. The losses of the Battle of Roberttown were 11 deaths and 34 wounded for the Covenanters, while the soldiers only had 5 deaths and 9 wounded. By the time Endon learned of all this, Resley had died of his wound and Woodwick, who had led the whole thing, had took total control over Roberttown, declaring his loyalty to the Scottish Parliament and the National Covenant.
- Endon, seeing that he was outnumbered, wrote a letter to the King, asking for more troops. However, he suspected (rightfully) that Charles already had his hands full and could not spare a man for the colony. So Endon went for Plan B. He sent envoys to the Sakawe tribes living on the southern shore of the Leary River. He offered them goods in exchange that they harass the Covenanters. The Sakawe people accepted, and soon a Sakawe leader named Kezhekaw began launching raids on Craigmouth. The choice of Craigmouth was less strategic than personal, as it was the former home of Kezhekaw before he was forced out by Leary in 1632. Leary, who was preparing to go link his militia with Woodwick in Roberttown, was took by surprise by those attacks. The first attack of Kezhekaw made a few deaths among the settlers of Craigmouth and greatly damage one of the farms. Bugged down, Leary would be forced to remain there for the time being, pushing back raids from the natives. In Roberttown, Woodwick feared that if he left the town to go help Leary, Endon would take back Roberttown, and that if he attacked Longshank without the militia, he would be crushed. Endon, for his part, used this time to begin the construction of a wall around Longshank.
- This impasse lasted for the next four years. The English Civil War in England only made things worse, as Endon now knew he was alone in this (He had no thrust in the other colonies, which he believed were on the side of the Parliamentarians). In 1642, Woodwick met with an envoy of Endon, and both negotiated the release of the captured soldiers. Endon payed graciously for the release of his men, and even agreed that Woodwick kept the weapons and equipment, as his priority was getting his men out of Roberttown (fearing they would be executed). With his wall built, Endon allowed the request of a few patriotic Englishmen who wanted to launch an attack on New Falkirk. MacValen surrendered the town without a fight, but sent a secret letter to Woodwick detailing the number of men presents, and that all of them were volunteers. This lead Woodwick to send his own group of zealous Covenanters, who captured back the town in a battle in which they suffered no losses, while the Englishmen lost 3 men and had 9 wounded. When they fled, the Englishmen left behind most of their guns, which were taken by the Covenanters.
- In late 1644, the raids of the Sakawes finally diminished. This came to a stop when in October 1644 Kezhekaw was captured and executed shortly after on orders of Leary. This meant that the militia of Leary could finally link with Woodwick. In January 1645, Woodwick and Leary marched on Longshank. The ensuing siege, which lasted 9 days, saw the death of 42 Covenanters, with as much wounded. The English troops loss 12 men and had 4 wounded, while the inhabitants of Longshank loss 23 people and had 38 wounded. The town was taken, but at the loss of their leader. Donald Woodwick was hit by a bullet to the chest and died of his wound an hour later at the age of 66. The man who chose the spot for Roberttown and the most influential leader of Flaadland for the last 17 years, his beloved followers would now have to continue without him. Endon, who had retreated to his mansion, quickly raised the white flag of surrender. A good part of Longshank had been burned by the besiegers, and Endon had no intention to stay and die just to impose a book to those stupid Covenanters. He negotiated the sae escape of him and his men back to England. Leary accepted, but he also decided to quick out the inhabitants of Longshank. They either had the choice of converting to Presbyterianism (the Covenanter version of it) or they would be forced out of their homes. Although some accepted the offer (about 40 of them), more than a 100 left. Not willing to return to England, those would migrate to the Colony of New Britain, where they would arrive in mid-1645. With this, Leary found himself in control of Flaadland.
- Strafford Bay Colony: In 1640 Wentworth and the King attempt to make their deal with Parliament, but the negotiations fall through. Parliament even attempts to have Wentworth personally tried and executed, and rather than take his chances, Wentworth accepts a deal granting him exile in Strafford Bay. He departs with a large entourage of supporters, retainers, and other political enemies. Strafford Bay formally declares itself in support of the crown in the coming conflict, and becomes a haven for any fleeing the chaos. Over the next few years Wentworth watches the news from England attentively and with horror, as the Parliamentary forces manage to slowly gain the upper hand. Although some choose to travel back to England from the colony and volunteer to fight (on both sides), Wentworth attempts to prevent this by creating a militia in the colony for men to serve in, and also puts people to work building defenses in Weymouth and Trenton. An outpost is also built on Providence Island, consisting of a series of earthworks and barricades, to monitor the southern most point of the colony and watch all traffic coming toward the settlements. When Wentworth learns of the turmoil in Flaadland, he offers Endon military aid. Refugees are also accepted into the community at Radcliffe, although some choose to settle further north and closer to the main settlements, in what becomes known as Newark.
- Letter from Endon (Zamarak): To the Right Honorable Earl Thomas Wentworth of Strafford. As I heard of your arrival and of what His Majesty is facing in England, I shall make haste to your new home in Strafford Bay. Your support is welcomed, although I am affraid that helping me retaking the Royal Colony from the rebels and traitors will not be an easy task. And is it wise to abandon your domain, full of followers of the Pope, just like those in Ireland? I suggest that you keep your troops with you. However, I suggest blockading any supply coming from England to Flaadland. This way, when His Majesty is victory, he shall find the rebels weakened, especially if we let them received new "exiles", which will only drain their ressources. I implore you to follow my suggestions and to stay wary of your own peasants. - signed William Barton, 3rd Baron of Endon
- OOC: Basically Endon and his troops go to Radcliffe instead of London, and he suggest blockading supply that come to Flaadlan, as he believe the King will be victorious and will then crush Flaadland. And now he's your character. Just remember that he has lands in England, so he isn't going to settle in the New World.
- Letter from Endon (Zamarak): To the Right Honorable Earl Thomas Wentworth of Strafford. As I heard of your arrival and of what His Majesty is facing in England, I shall make haste to your new home in Strafford Bay. Your support is welcomed, although I am affraid that helping me retaking the Royal Colony from the rebels and traitors will not be an easy task. And is it wise to abandon your domain, full of followers of the Pope, just like those in Ireland? I suggest that you keep your troops with you. However, I suggest blockading any supply coming from England to Flaadland. This way, when His Majesty is victory, he shall find the rebels weakened, especially if we let them received new "exiles", which will only drain their ressources. I implore you to follow my suggestions and to stay wary of your own peasants. - signed William Barton, 3rd Baron of Endon
- London Company: William Burke's expedition to as far as Florida sparks more interest in the southern east coast and New Britain. For now Burke returns to the colony and temporarily resides in Lincoln, helping the settlement get off the ground. The peninsulas jutting out into the Burke River from the west are explored and settled with new towns and plantations. In particular Lincoln grows into a major settlement, while just south a town called Alexandria is incorporated, as a town center surrounding a series of plantations. The colony sees an influx of settlers in the wake of the English Civil War. The government as a whole tries to remain neutral, although many of the colony's most affluent landowners are royalist supporters, and their numbers only continue to grow. After being pushed out of Lincoln, a group of settlers who are Parliamentarians settle the town of Fairfax just up river, named for the Parliamentary commander-in-chief Thomas Fairfax. The legislative assembly in Norfolk, now known as the House of Burgesses, decides to formally divide the colony into a series of counties. The four counties of Norfolk, Henry, Lincoln, and Burke are born. Their governance does not change, rather the "governors" previously appointed become the heads of the counties.
- Colony of Unamia: The colony continues to grow as more people migrate into the colony from Nauset Bay, or arrive from England and the rest of Europe. Both Warwick and Davenport grow significantly, and the two towns are joined by a dirt road to help connect them. A third town, Newport is settled further south and connected to Warwick. The surrounding area is further explored, and traders continue to peacefully contact the nearby native tribes, with some attempting to record their languages and customs.
- Nauset Bay Colony: Renovations take place all across Cambridge to transform the northend into a more urban environment, including the areas around the Cambridge Common, Locke University, and other landmarks. As the town itself becomes more densely populated, more settlers migrate south and west to more rural areas. We ask to formalize a border with the southern colony of Unamia, and to strengthen our position in the south some settlers are tasked with creating a town on the southern part of the peninsula, east of Davenport. The colonists pick the name "New Bedford" for the area. When news reaches the colony of the English Civil War, the colony announces its support for the Parliamentarians, as the colony's government is ran completely by Puritans and other groups opposed to Charles I. A large portion of the population travels back to England to join the New Model Army, but this population shift is counteracted by a large number of people fleeing the war and emigrating to the colony.
The House of Parliament approves a colonial charter for a proprietor named John Mason, who settles the town of Dover north of Rockport.
The members of the House of Parliament agree to lay down their commands and consolidate their forces into the New Model Army, under the command of Sir Thomas Fairfax and Oliver Cromwell, unifying the Parliamentarian forces. The new army is highly successful, and in 1646 Charles is captured by a Scottish army and handed over to the Parliamentarians, having already lost most of his forces.
While Parliament is distracted with revolts across Britain, Charles I negotiates a secret treaty with the Scots, promising church reform in exchange for restoring him to the throne. His plan backfires, however, with the New Model Army defeating the Scots within the year.
In December 1648 the army purges Parliament of any members sympathetic to the king. The remaining few members are ordered to put Charles I on trial for treason. Fairfax, a moderate, resigns, leaving Cromwell in command of the army. Charles I is ultimately found guilt and beheaded.
- Nauset Bay Colony: With a temporarily lull in the English Civil War taking place in 1646, a large number of new settlers arrive en masse. We continue to support the Parliamentarian cause, and do so more openly now. The colony attempts to diversify its economy, as not to rely too heavily on England proper. In particular the fur trading industry takes off in the interior, while the lumber and fishing industries become important in the east. Again the Cambridge authorities are forced to expand the city's docks to accommodate large trade ships and new industries. Additionally the first shipbuilding dock is constructed in the north, to take advantage of the massive amounts of timber being harvested, and a lumber mill is constructed near the site.
- Flaadland Royal Colony:
- After the victory at Longshank, Leary began acting as de facto governor of Flaadland. Fearing reprisal, he send a letter to the Parliament of Scotland asking for confirmation. The Scots would of course recognized to the demand, happy that their authority was recognized over the one of London. Although the Parliament of Scotland would make him Royal Governor of Flaadland, the decision would only be ratified in 1648 by Charles I, while he was fighting alongside the Covenanters. That switch from the Scottish Covenanters from Charles’s enemies to his supporters would not be followed by Flaadland, however. Although Leary continued to proclaim himself loyal to the Parliament of Scotland, and would continue to do so for the rest of his life, Leary and the veterans of the Woodwick Rebellion had too much bad blood toward Charles to declare themselves royalists, and his death in 1649 would actually be celebrated as “the rightful punishment of Macbeth”. This was the first time Flaadland’s Covenanters broke from their Scottish counterpart.
- In 1646, the volunteers who went to fight the war in Scotland returned, bringing along wives and children they got in Scotland. They settle in a town named Woodwick, which is situated on the coast of Lake Bruce, the church being built on the small piece of land coming out of the otherwise round lake. During the following years, Leary see his militia diminish, as people preferred to go attend the field instead of staying around obeying Leary’s orders. The religious leader, who acted as the biggest landowners, were happy to see this, and with the arrival of Covenanters in 1648 fleeing what seemed to be a lost cause, plantations worked by free peasants who owned (and often built) their own houses became the standard system of the colony. It was quickly called the Woodwick System, as Donald Woodwick was the first to start building farmlands around his church and have his congregation work it.
- London Company: Expansion of the colony continues, and as people flee the civil unrest in England, they are welcomed to our colonies. In New Britain William Burke becomes governor for the first time after being a prominent figure in the colonies, town leader, and explorer since the colony's founding. Many new settlers move out of the established counties in search of unclaimed land for plantations, and as such several new areas are claimed and chartered, although remaining very sparsely populated compared to the more established settlements. Settlers from Norfolk found Wessex up the James River to the west, along the northern shore, while Williamsport is founded to the north east of Henry County, on a small inlet on the eastern peninsula. The first major settlement, however, is placed on the eastern side of the peninsula, at the mouth of the eastern river. In this way the entire peninsula is claimed by the colony, although much of it is still empty or populated only by sparse traders and natives.
- Strafford Bay Colony: The colony's government continues to oppose the Parliamentarian cause, and support Charles I and the Cavaliers. Public opinion shifts, however, as a large portion of the population is sympathetic to the Parliamentarians. For now the population is kept in line by the colony's loyal but small militia, and wealthy landowners and influential leaders. Nonetheless people continue to travel back to England to join the war, particularly Parliamentarians, although both sides see Strafford Bay volunteers. The colony also sees an increase in arrivals from England, particular royalists, as Strafford Bay appears to be the only place where the royalists are accepted. Many wealthy royalists arrive and set up plantations in the south. Providence Island, now the home to an extensive fort system overlooking the bay, also sees settlement from these migrating groups. Another settlement named Gloucester springs up outside the bay to the southeast of Trenton, mostly settled by Parliamentarian sympathizers looking to create some distance between themselves and the Trenton government.
With Charles I dead and the Royalists forces seemingly defeated, Cromwell and the New Model Army turn their attention to Ireland, and by 1653 the Irish forces are crushed. Cromwell also enacts brutal reprisal against the Irish population, resulting in high civilian casaulties.
Parliament passes an Act of law known as "An Act for prohibiting Trade with the Barbadoes, Strafford Bay, Bermuda and Antego". The law forbids English trade with the disloyal colonies in the New World. Likewise in 1651 the "Navigation Acts" are passed, prohibiting all trade between the English colonies and the Netherlands, Spain, and France, and their respective colonies.
Charles II lands in Scotland in 1650, but the Royalists and Scottish are defeated. Charles II escapes again into exile in France. In 1653 "The Protectorate" is created, with Cromwell as Lord Protector.
Disputes over trade result in war being declared in 1652 between the Dutch Republic and the Commonwealth of England. The Colony of New Haven is founded north of New Berkshire (the colony centered around the town of Dover).
- London Company: The colony of New Britain continues to quickly grow due to an influx of settlers. As more people move inland however hostilities begin to break out with the native population. A native chief manages to launch a series of raids against some of the smaller settlements in the west, killing a large number of settlers, and as a result the colony prepares for all out war. Over the course of the next few years the colonists launch several violent reprisals. Palisades and forts are constructed at the edge of the Henry Peninsula and all along the interior. Nonetheless the conflict only temporarily halts the spread of colonists into the region, in search of new land. The war does however spark more interest in settling on the eastern peninsula, which is almost devoid of natives. The earlier settlement in the area, now known as Camden, grows significantly. A town known as Easton is also founded north of Williamsport.
- Nauset Bay Colony: The colony continues to see the migration into the colony, as people flee the English Civil War, and back to England, as volunteers join the fight, primarily on the Parliamentarian side. The government becomes particularly interested in Cromwell and the New Model Army, and manages to attract a few former officers of the army to create local divisions in Nauset Bay. A few hundred men, mostly staunch Puritans, volunteer and begin vigorous training outside Cambridge, as a militia force. The government in Cambridge decides to copy the New Britain model and creates five counties; Essex (eastern part of peninsula near Portsmouth), Nauset (Cambridge peninsula and areas just south of city proper), Suffolk (Salem and New Bedford), Middlesex (Charlestown area), and Concord. Two small towns form in the northwest part of the nation, along the Charles River; Naugus, north of Concord, and Dedham, formed the following year further up river, on the southern shore. Over the course of the next three years three new counties are made; Norfolk (Rockport area), Charles (Naugus and eastern bank of Charles River), and Bradford (western bank of Charles River), in 1651, 1652, and 1653, respectively. In 1651 we send delegates to meet with Unamia and create a formal border. In the south we ask that a border be created around Davenport, and then diagonally to the northwest. In the north we propose the border follow the small creek, nicknamed the Mystic River, and then from its source, due north.
- Unamia: The colony continues to grow as people from Nauset Bay and other colonies migrate into Unamia, or travel from Europe to settle in the colony. Although the colony's strict policy of religious freedom/toleration helps quell conflict between the settlers, the colony's large Puritan population mostly supports the Parliamentarians in the civil war. Some of the settlers, fed up with the Puritan section of the population, move inland and settle "Kingstown" northwest of Warwick, to show their support for the monarch. In 1651 we meet with the Nauset Bay delegation and agree to their proposal for the new border. We are pleased that we were able to come to an agreement, and also propose that a military alliance be formed between the northern colonies. We propose the name, the Borealian Confederation. We also propose that the colonies work together against the nearby hostile colony of New Netherlands. Meanwhile in the far north the city of Portland expands, and settlers move inland toward the Mystic River. A town named Exeter is founded on the eastern peninsula north of Portland.
- Nauset Bay Diplomacy: We are glad that the border is accepted, and we accept the offer to join the Borealian Confederation.
- Flaadland Diplomacy: The Flaadland Governor write an angry letter to London when he heard of this, calling this Borealian Confederation "an act of rebellion and upmost trahison toward the mainland" and saying that this is "stepping over the rights of Parliament to write treaties for its colonies".
- Flaadland Royal Colony:
- Many Scottish Presbyterians arrive each years in mass, at first fleeing the end of the Third Civil War and then fleeing the Commonwealth, as many Covenanters are seen as enemies of the Commonwealth for their role in the Civil Wars. Many of them found the towns of Argyll in 1651 and Leven in 1652, both named after Covenanter leaders and both built on the coast (Argyll is east of New Falkirk, while Leven is further north than any other settlement of Flaadland so far). However, a good number of them simply settled in the already existing settlements, most notably Roberttown. With the gain of population from the baby boom that followed the Woodwick Rebellion, Flaadland is currently growing far faster than ever before. The newcomers organized themselves following the Woodwick System, with the religion ministers building small plantations for the workers. In Roberttown, some true urban communities begin to appear. This vague of new Covenanters differ from the first generation of settlers. Most of them had just risked their life for Charles I and Charles II, and so were far more supportive of the Monarchy then Leary and his group. Although no tensions would ever erupt between the two groups, this would create a shift in the colony’s ideas, especially with what happened in 1653.
- But Flaadland was a Royal Colony, and with the King dead parliament now wanted to take charge of it. In 1653, a small fleet of parliamentary ships arrive in the harbours of Roberttown. Leary, recognizing the English banner, come to meet them with some of his militiamen. The ship disembark a man named George Sarton, an old puritan (he somehow still stand on his two feet while being 68) who had orders to take his post as Governor of Flaadland. Recognizing that he has no way to refuse the offer, as Sarton brought troops and armed boats just in case, Leary grudgingly give control of the colony to the puritan. Sarton bring with him troops, yes, but also settlers, which he claim are English Presbyterians (which they are this time). The new Presbyterians were surprisingly welcomed by the locals, and with time would marry and intermingle with the local Flaadlanders. With the exception of Leary, a couple of his hard core allies and a couple of radical royalists in Argyll and Leven, the arrival of Sarton was welcomed by everyone. Although they had developed autonomously for the last 10 years or so (ever since the Woodwick Rebellion), they had been isolated from England and the other colonies. With Flaadland now officially opened for business. Sarton, for the time being, proved to value the Woodwick System and even encouraged it. He also began to entertain the idea of bringing slaves to the colony, although he didn’t know how much it will be possible to bring (The Triangular Trade, which brought at most of the slaves to America, didn’t start until the 18th Century). Sarton was smart enough to ally himself with the Nomist Covenanters (a name given to the Covenanters that did the Woodwick Rebellion to distinguish them from the new Royalist Covenanters). Most Nomists had enough fighting for a lifetime after the Woodwick Rebellion and believe no governor would try to challenge them again. With the support of the religious leaders, Sarton was able to take efficient control of the colony. The militia of Leary found their jobs taken by English soldiers, which doesn’t please them one bit. So Sarton, in an attempt to distract them, organize an expedition for them to attack the ships of the Strafford Bay Colony. Neill Turey, a militiaman who fought the Woodwick Rebellion from his home in New Falkirk, led 80 militiamen on an armed ship in 1654, raiding ships. In late 1854, Henry MacValen died at the age of 52, and is buried with honors by the community.
- Strafford Bay Colony: The trade embargos placed on Strafford Bay take their effect, damaging the economy of the colony. But they also lead to increased smuggling, and illegal trade with New Sweden and New Netherlands, although the outbreak of war with the Dutch diminishes those trade routes as well. Instead Wentworth proposes diversifying the colony's agriculture and industries, and taking the opportunity to make the colony more autonomous. Firstly, an assembly is created in Trenton as a miniature Parliament, with representatives from all major settlements. Wentworth's primary goal, however, is in the diversification of Strafford Bay's agricultural products. Unable to sell tobacco as easily, other crops begin to become popular, with Wentworth personally paving the way by experimenting on his own estate. Within the next few years sizeable producers of silk, spirits, citrus fruits, grapes, and more all spring up within the colony. Wentworth even successfully cultivates rice after several of his slaves from West Africa recommend it. Meanwhile the colony sees numerous raids from Parliamentary privateers against our coastal towns and trade ships, as authorized by Parliament. Military veterans, such as John Radcliffe, the former explorer, and Guildford Slingsby, one of Wentworth's closest friends and officers in Ireland, are appointed to the head of the militia tasked with defending the colony. Under their leadership "Fort Providence" grows into a large fortification capable of driving away most attacks. Neill Turey's raid, however, is unexpected, and the colony suffers major losses in repulsing the attack. Finally later that same year a small fleet of English ships, carrying Parliamentarian soldiers and the Cromwell-appointed replacement governor, John Berkeley, arrives in Strafford Bay. Wentworth surrenders without bloodshed. Wentworth, his family, and some of his closest supporters are removed from government, but in exchange are allowed to live out their days as private citizens on their respective properties. Berkeley is largely an entrepeneur himself, and so does not object much to the already existing institutions in the colony. Wentworth's assembly continues to operate as the de facto government in the colony despite Berkeley being in charge. As a result the royalist population goes on unharassed, and many more continue to migrate to the colony, which ultimately Berkeley sees as good. By 1655 the new governor is a wealthy landowner as well. All this is unpopular with some of Berkeley's subordinates, but they continue to garrison Trenton and wait, confident that Parliament will replace the governor with a much stricter Puritan soon enough. Puritan veteran Francis Bennett is appointed to the head of the colonial militia by Berkeley, relieving the Wentworth appointees. Slingsby manages to preserve his post as commander of Providence Island, after much convincing. Radcliffe meanwhile leads a large band of mostly royalist volunteers to explore and fortify the area south of the town named after him. The authorities reluctantly tolerate this expedition under the guise of ensuring the colony's protection against the nearby natives. In reality Radcliffe secretly also patrols for Flaadlanders should they plan another raid, and de facto extends the borders of the colony much further south through the construction of numerous outposts (about a third of the way between Radcliffe and northern Flaadland).
The Anglo-Dutch War is ended with the Treaty of Westminster in early 1655, although tensions remain high between the two nations. Meanwhile the English pursue an alliance with France and join a war against the Spanish instead.
A series of English invasions take place agains the Spanish West Indies. Although the English fail to take Hispaniola, they manage to capture the island of Jamaica. In Europe the Anglo-French alliance invades the Spanish Netherlands.
The colonies of New Berkshire and New Haven agree to join the Borealian Confederation. Meanwhile Parliament responds to the alleged rebellious actions in the north by sending a detachment of soldiers and replacement governors to New Berkshire and New Haven.
The English colony of Nova Cambria is founded in the far north of North America, near the French-dominated St. Denis River.
- Flaadland Royal Colony:
- The Parliament sent masses of settlers between 1655 and 1660. Most of them are Scottish, but some are English or Irish Presbyterians. Whatever their places of origin, the new settlers are welcomed in the community as long as they accept the local Presbyterian way, which they do. In 1656 also arrive the first slaves to the colony, and Sarton began selling them to the religious landlords. But Sarton is surprised by the reticence of the population toward slavery (historically, Covenanters weren’t supporters of slavery, and by the mid-1700 they were radical abolitionists). Quickly, the Freedom Covenant is organized in Craigmouth, were the religious leaders and their followers conveyed on the issue. Although no one support slavery emancipation, they all agree on the idea that “A Covenanter can only walk the world a free man.” Thus, they decide that any slave converting to Presbyterianism would have to be freed. Obviously, this mean being baptised by the religious landlords. And since those landlords are the slave owners, they would usually refuse to baptise the slave, and it would take decades after the Freedom Covenant to see slaves actually be allowed to convert.
- When he learned that troops were going to be sent by London against the colonies he accused of being traitors, Sarton quickly order Neill Tery and his troops to assist the men sent, although he is now ordered to stay away from Strafford Bay, as it is now led by a Governor appointed by the Parliament. Neill Tery mainly use his ship and men to attack neutral merchant ships going to or from New Berkshire and New Haven, although he would let them go if they payed him enough money, most of which was then sent back to Roberttown. Neill Tery’s brutal violence against the ships that refused to pay led many to give him the nickname of “Neill Terror”. Still, in 1657, Sarton would write a letter to London, praising Neill Tery as “the most efficient parliamentary corsair in the colonies.”
- But with the arrival of the slaves, Sarton decided that he had enough control on the colony. By the end of 1656, He began imposing many puritan laws, just like Cromwell was doing in England. Quickly, gambling and drinking are made illegal, and soon after most entertainments are forbidden, as “The Bible is the only need of the soul”, according to Sarton. Many among the population protest, but the opposition is mostly isolated, nothing to be compared with the protests between 1637-1640 against the Book of Common Prayer. The fact that the religious landlords only gain from this newfound religious administration help Sarton a lot. But this is the last straw for David Leary and his militiamen. He began plotting the overthrow of Sarton to retake his place as head of the colony. In his plotting, he is joined by veterans of the Woodwick Rebellion, but also by younger “patriots” who mostly or only knew the colonial life. Leary even sent a secret letter to the royalist John Radcliffe, offering to unite, retake Flaadland and use it as a spearhead to re-establish royal administration in the colonies. He received no answer from Radcliffe however, probably because the royalist is either not stupid enough to think the plot would work or not thrusting enough of the Flaadlanders after the raid.
- In 1858, as Sarton was writing a letter to parliament, he was warned that some militiamen were piling up weapons in their houses. After a couple of arrests, the plot is quickly exposed. A few of the militiamen involved make a last stand in the harbors of Roberttown, but they were shot down. Leary fled for Craigmouth, hoping to find support in the town he led for a decade. But soldiers are waiting for him there, and he was quickly apprehended. Seven men were identified as the ringleaders of the failed plot and condemned to be hanged on the public place of Robbertown. Leary and his closest allies are executed. But in the end, this was a massive mistake for Sarton. Not the execution of Leary, who by now was seen as a power hungry man. No, it was the execution of Donald Woodwick II (youngest son of the late leader Donald Woodwick) that Sarton underestimated. Donald Woodwick II was born in 1628 as the first Flaadlander born in the colony. Donald was only 16 at the time of the Battle of Longshank, yet served courageously and gained great respect from his fellow Flaadlanders. And now, the “proud son of Flaadland” was dead, killed by the Parliamentary government.
- Although the population was not ready to once more rise up in revolt, they quickly began openly disobeying the puritan laws of Sarton. Richard Woodwick, the eldest son of Donald Woodwick, organized a massive march in Roberttown two weeks after the execution of his brother. Soon, royalist chants were heard in the illegal pubs, and troops, who had no desire to end like Captain Resley and his men, looked the other way instead of stopping those illegal activities. This could not have come at worst time for Sarton, who was growing increasingly ill with the months. By February 1659, the old Governor was unable to leave his bed. Because of this, the administration of the colony felt to the army, in particular Captain John Levingford. Levingford, who realized that they had to cave if they didn’t want a new revolt, offered to let in the colonial administration a man who was quickly growing into one of the most influential men in the colony, Robert Drusberry.
- Robert Drusberry was born in 1616, in Scotland. He came with his family to Flaadland, were he managed to land a marriage with one of the religious landowners of Craigmouth. He was among the volunteers who went to Scotland in 1639, and the timely death of both his brothers-in-law during those 7 years made him the heir. In 1650, he became the biggest landowner in Craigmouth. The reason Drusberry was invited in the government instead of other leaders like Richard Woodwick was that Drusberry was far more moderate in his actions and had no loyalty to any ideology. The arrival of Drusberry in the colonial administration helped calm the population, who new believed the authorities would have their interests at heart. Drusberry, who quickly became the power behind the dying Sarton, rebuked the puritan laws and reaffirmed that Covenanter Presbyterianism was the only religion of Flaadland. When Sarton died in October 1959 at the age of 76, John Levingford took office as acting Governor. However, it was truly Drusberry who was in charge, as Levingford only led the army and leaved the rest to Drusberry.
- Berkeley isn't a Royalist, he's a Parliamentarian. He just happens to have a lax attitude toward governing. You might be thinking of Thomas Wentworth, the former governor. Also Cromwell hasn't died yet.
- Zamarak: Correcting it. And I was thinking of Radcliffe.
- Nauset Bay Colony: Just before the Treaty of Westminster is signed in late 1655, the Borealian Confederation is able to agree on a course of action against the Dutch, and Edward Percy is selected to lead a small force of about 70 Nausetians and 50 men from the various other colonies on a raid against New Netherlands. It becomes clear that New Amsterdam is too heavily defended, especially on the approach by sea, so instead Percy disembarks a few miles north of Stuyvesant, the northeastern-most Dutch outpost, and travels there on foot, his fleet including some of the first ever warships constructed locally in the New World. He manages to catch the Dutch by surprise and cause havok and damages before fleeing back north. All in all the raid is fairly insignificant to the grand scheme of the war, but Percy and his crew are welcomed as heroes when they arrive in the north. The government in Cambridge silently applauds the replacement of governors in New Berkshire and New Haven, as the governors of Nauset Bay are staunchly Puritan and Parliamentarian, more so than most others in the colonies or even England. As such we don't react when a privateer named Neill Tery allegedly attacks "royalist" ships. When however it becomes clear that Tery continues to attack shipping in the north even after massive Parliamentarian reforms and government changes, he is branded as a pirate, and hunted after. Letters are sent to Parliament defaming the previously lauded individual. A letter is also sent to the government of Flaadland, pointing out that Parliament legally only allowed raids against Barbadoes, Strafford Bay (formerly), Bermuda and Antego, and warning them that if Tery must be recalled. Not to mention raids against fellow Englishmen are in bad taste when we were all at war with the Dutch, and now the Spanish. Nonetheless our actions seems to help New Haven and New Berkshire recover, and we begin trading heavily with the fellow "Borealian" colonies to help them grow. A coastal road is constructed from New Bedford to Davenport, to help connect to Unamia by land. Meanwhile in the town of Rockport several girls begin acting strangely, causing the alarm of local authorities. It becomes clear that witchcraft is being practiced, and a series of trials are carried out. Overall a dozen women (and a few men) are found guilty and executed after rigorous questioning by church leaders throughout 1660 and 1661.
- Flaadland Diplomacy: Acting Governor Levingford explain that with the death of Governor George Sarton in October 1659, they have more pressing matters to attend to. He also point out that it was Sarton, not him, that ordered Neill Tery to go, so he really has nothing to do with it. He however, does say he will send an order of recall to Tery by mid-1560, as attacking neutral ships was not part the orders from Sarton.
- London Company: The on-again, off-again war with the local natives escalates once more into all out war, as the colonists of New Britain continue to push westward. The natives form a nation known as the Monaten Confederacy, composed of the Monatens, Appomatucks, Socetans, Nanesmons, and the Soanokes, all led by the chieftain Parahunt. Tensions flair up after the so called Massacre of 1655, in which Parahunt's warriors manage to slaughter an entire town of people in western Henry County. The natives are unable to follow up this attack thanks to the series of palisades and forts in the county, and they retreat to a native settlement to the south, west of Avalon. The first real battle of the conflict occurs just southwest of Wessex, when a militia mostly comprised of Henry County settlers manages to catch up the the natives and defeat them. William Burke, now on his second term as governor, gathers men in the major settlements in the meantime, and personally leads an assault on the alleged Monaten captial. They successfully raze the town and capture some members of Parahunt's family, but the chief and a large portion of his warriors remain elusive. Small skirmishes continue into 1656, and the English built a major fort directly south of Norfolk along a small river, called Fort York, which becomes a base of operations in the far south. Parahunt is finally killed in early 1657, and the confederacy largely breaks down, however the English continue their assault on individual native groups. Ultimately peace is not made until 1659, when the Treaty of Fort York is signed, ending the hostilities. In total almost a dozen tribes are represented in the treaty, signing the treaty as "tributary tribes". They are guaranteed their homeland territory, hunting and fishing rights, the right to bear arms, and some forms of protection, as long as they maintain their obedience to the English. Also the natives are to cede a large portion of land between the Lincoln and York rivers, recognizing that as English territory from now on. With the war over this new territory is quickly divided up. The forts along the border grow into small towns, as people enter the new territory and form plantations. Fort York develops into "Yorktown", while "Swansea" is founded along the Lincoln River west of Alexandria. Elsewhere others choose to travel east instead to the relatively safer peninsula.
- Strafford Bay Colony: The colony slowly recovers after the period of trade embargoes, raids, and turmoil. The tobacco trade sparks up once more, but thanks to the reforms carried out by Wentworth, profitable markets open up in many other crops as well. Althouth Berkeley is popular as a governor, his lax governing causes Parliament to issue a replacement in 1658. Robert Clymer, a more strict Puritan, arrives in the colony and replaces Berkeley, who goes on to live in the colony as a wealthy landowner. Clymer attempts to impose Cromwell's rules on the colony with some success, although like Berkeley he has to contend with the assembly in Trenton, who don't always enforce his rules. Radcliffe's expedition manages to open trade with some native tribes and open some locations for settlers who come after him, but it also inadvertedly causes conflict with a tribe known as the Nunsee, who more or less control the territory between Flaadland and the town of Radcliffe. Brief skirmishes breakout throughout the countryside, although Radcliffe is able to repulse the natives from launching a full scale invasion of the colony. Nonetheless their occassional raids begin to plague northern Flaadland and southern Strafford Bay.
The Anglo-Spanish War ends in an English victory, with the English seizing Jamaica and the Cayman Islands, and receiving Dunkirk and Mardyck in the Lowlands
In 1661 Oliver Cromwell dies and is succeeded by his son Richard. Without a strong figurehead the Protectorate slowly falls apart. In 1662 Charles II returns to England and manages to reclaim the throne.
The former governor of Barbados is restored. The man who had replaced the Royalist is sent to Jamaica instead, which becomes an English colony. Meanwhile Blackwall is separated from the London Company and becomes a separate colonial entity.
Several Regicides manage to escape to Europe, while some flee to the Borealian colonies, such as Nauset Bay. New Berkshire and New Haven notably do not declare for the king until 1663.
The colonies that remained loyal to the king until the end are rewarded, with Thomas Wentworth, William Barton of Endon, and other colonial royalists receiving honors and pardons if applicable. A few important royalists (mostly English statesmen, but a few colonial landowners as well) are granted a royal charter for a new colony south of New Britain, known as Carolina, as a reward for their loyalty.
The most strict governors, such as Clymer, are ordered removed, and Strafford Bay's charter is restored, allowing them to elect their own leaders once more.
- Colony of New Britain: The return of Charles II is welcomed across the colony, especially among the wealthy landowners and royalists. One of the landowners in particular, Charles Garth, is among those mentioned in the Carolina charter, and the man makes preparations for the colony. He spends a small fortune buying a large number of slaves from Africa and attracting settlers from New Britain and other colonies. With peace having been made with the natives surrounding New Britain, settlers move into the territory between the York and Lincoln rivers, and a few new counties are created. Meanwhile wealthy royalist Gilbert Jackson becomes governor of New Britain after William Burke steps down. Now in his sixties, Burke retires to a large estate near Norfolk and exits politics still very popular among the people of the colony.
- Flaadland Royal Colony: In mid-1660, just as promised, Levingford send a letter to the corsair Neill Tery, asking him to come back. But Tery and the crew of the Wallace have become far too accustomed to their life as corsairs. Tery refuse to return, turning into a full blown pirate with his crew. Since Tery is operating in the north, Levingford decide to wash his hands of it. The return of Charles II on the throne of Scotland is welcomed by the population of Flaadland, including the continuous newcomers who arrive from Scotland from 1660 to 1662. In January 1663, a new governor arrive in the colony with slaves and orders to replace the acting governor. His name is William Wentworth, son of the Earl of Strafford, who was appointed as one of the many rewards for Strafford’s loyalty to the crown. With the restauration, Flaadland can finally leave those years of turmoil behind it and begin on a new start. Wentworth is at the very least open to this new start. Just like his father, he prove to be an excellent administrator, although he does rely heavily on Drusberry for most of 1663 until he get the handle on how things are run in Flaadland. In 1664, Wentworth officially put a bounty on the head of Neill Tery with the authorisation of the King, promising knighthood to any captain who can take down the pirate, as well as many riches for his crew. By early 1664, new slaves arrive, sent from Africa on orders of Wentworth. Meanwhile, Drusberry has become a great ally to the royal administration, and in June 1664 is able to have Longshank renamed Clarendon after Edward Hyde (the 1st Earl of Clarendon), who played a crucial role in the restauration. Drusberry is by now the greatest landowner of the colony, and many call Craigmouth “his personal domain” behind his back. But so far, things seems to be going all right for the royal colony. Everyone just hope that nothing come to disturb it.
- Colony of Unamia: The restoration of the king in England disappoints many among the very large Parliamentarian-leaning population. That said the colony as a whole welcomes a return to normalacy and hopefully an end to conflict among the English. John Winthrop and the other colonial leaders, many of who aren't Puritans themselves, do not particularly miss Cromwell and his Puritanical laws. Refugees from the war, settlers from Nauset Bay and other nearby colonies, and people from all across Europe are welcomed to the colony. People continue to mostly settle in the more developed parts of the colony, such as in the major towns of Davenport and Warwick, and the areas surrounding these towns. Many however choose to settle more to the south and more inland, and quickly come into contact with the nearby Dutch population. During the recent war with the Dutch the Unamian settlers find themselves right in the middle of a conflict, and as a result many choose to move north. A town named Barrington develops northwest of
- Nauset Bay Colony: The restoration of the English monarch is not welcomed warmly in Nauset Bay. The entire ruling class and government were outspoken Parliamentarians, and most of the colony's population were Puritans and Cromwell supporters. In 1661, months after his ascension, the colony recognizes Charles II, after it becomes clear the colony has no other option. That said, over the next few years the colony clashes occasionally with Charles' interests and decrees. Initially, an attempt to have the Church of England established in the colony is rejected, and the Navigation Acts are largely resisted as well. This continues until we learn that the crown is likely working to find ways to revoke the colony's charter, which causes some alarm. Instead the government, under governor Edward Norton, shifts its attention toward trying to appease London enough to preserve the colony's charter, and we follow English orders and try to avoid confrontation. This is tested later in the year, when controversy over the regicide commissionors is begun by Charles II. Two of the regicide commissionors, who had voted to execute Charles I, had fled to live in Cambridge, and until now had been left alone. News arrives of the king's interest in arresting all regicides, but initially the governor refuses to turn them in to the king, at least not until the Indemnity and Oblivion Act is passed in England. When the order finally does arrive from England, Governor Norton obeys and sends men to arrest them, but coincidentally they escape. Also, in an attempt to appease the king, the governor writes a lengthy letter to the king, praising him and congradulating him on his rise to power. Norton retires in late 1663, having successfully manuveured the colony away from conflict for now, but exhausted with politics. Joseph Bradstreet, a more moderate leader, replaces him. In 1664 it becomes clear that the former Parliamentarian privateer Neill Tery has turned to piracy in the north, and the Nauset Bay government decides to match the bounty put on his head by his former home of Flaadland. Many individuals take up the challenge to find him, but this proves to be unsuccessful. Instead the government begins assembling a small fleet of warships, including some English ships and a few small, locally built ships. Edward Percy is appointed to the head of the colonial navy, and takes up the hunt. Regardless the event helps to spark the local shipbuilding industry in the colony, and the docks and shipyards at Cambridge and Concord are heavily expanded. A large source of iron is discovered in the northern section of the colony, especially around the Charles County, and an ironworks is constructed in Naugus. The ironworks quickly grows into a large industry thanks to the granting of a monopoly from the government, and the rising demand for iron. A few skilled workers are imported from England, but many of these men clash with the colony's Puritan society, and arrests for such crimes as drunkenness and gambling rise in the north. Indentured servants and former prisoners of war instead fill the ranks. More people settle the growing towns on the Charles River, such as Dedham and Naugus, and spread out to the northern bank of the river as well. New settlements and farms rise up in the region west of Dedham and north of the Charles.
- Strafford Bay Colony: The restoration of the king is celebrated within the colony by the many Royalists, Catholics, and Cavaliers. Robert Clymer's removal is also celebrated, as it brings about the end of Puritanical laws, such as prohibitions of drinking and gambling. Wentworth is called a hero by the Royalists and accepts the honors thrown at him, however, he declines an offer to be reinstated as governor, as the elderly man wishes to merely retire and stay out of politics. He likewise does not partake in the colonization of Carolina. Instead a few of his relatives and friends, including his younger son, become proprietors or settlers of the new colony. Thomas Moryson, a wealthy businessman and Royalist, becomes governor instead. Many of the Parliamentarian-leaning settlers of the colony simply choose to migrate inland or elsewhere, rather than start any conflicts. This results in the founding of Albemarle in 1662, located on the southern coast east of Providence, and Hampton in 1663, located to the northeast of Albemarle. The southern coast proves to be a popular region for new settlers, and the governor orders Guildford Slingsby to construct a fort between Providence and Albemarle to protect the region. Fort Henrietta, named for the king's morther Henrietta Maria, is formed later that year. The recent conflicts luckily helped to strengthen and organize the colony's military, as in 1662 full scale war breaks out with the Nunsee. Radcliffe continues to watch a war of defense along the southern border of the colony, and the following year he receives an army of reinforcements from Francis Bennett, forcing the two former rivals to work together. Additionally the governor writes a letter to Flaadland proposing that they campaign against the Nunsee from the south (as they occupy the entire stretch of land from northern Flaadland to southern Strafford Bay).
War breaks out again between the English and the Dutch Republic. The English are joined by the German state of Münster, however, the following year Denmark and France both declare war on the English the following year.
- Colony of New Britain: The colony continues to grow and prosper now that peace has been established with the nearby natives. Isaac Fauquier becomes the new governor of the colony, and prohibits any settlement, raids, or incursions into native territory, and essentially makes sure that the previous treaty with the natives is respected, in order to help the colony recover. As for the area between the York and Lincoln rivers, settlement increases dramatically. Forts are constructed in the far west at the border, including at the ends of each river. The town of Arlington is founded at the site of the old native capital, west of Avalon and along the James River. Lincoln turns into a major town in the north, and the area between Lincoln and Alexandria is settled heavily and populated with numerous plantations. Slowly the triangular region between Lincoln, Alexandria, and Swansea is settled, becoming one of the most heavily populated parts of the colony. The peninsula between the "Rappahanoc River" and the Burke River is also settled, although conflicts arrise with the native Mattatoni tribe, which loosely controls the entire area south of the Rappahanoc.
- Nauset Bay Colony: The colonization along the Charles River and north of the counties Bradford and Charles continues. This eventually leads to conflict with the native tribes of the region. Although the natives have been heavily devastated by disease, now numbering only about 12,000 people in the Nauset Bay region (spread across five different tribes), the natives have also all adapted steel weapons and guns, becoming formidable opponents. Meanwhile the English number about 70,000, spread out over almost a hundred individual towns. Each town is to create its own militia for the purpose of defense, but it soon becomes clear that the colonial militias have wildly different levels of discipline, experience, and ability. In addition to generally encroaching on native territory, relations also deteriorate further after a series of diplomatic insults. Firstly, the governor of New Bedford, a staunch Puritan with no sympathey for nearby Unamia, receives word of the Unami tribe selling land to the Colony of Unamia. He cites a law forbidding any Englishmen (from Nauset Bay) from negotiating with native leaders, and arrests the native chief responsible for the deal, Massequin, based on this flimsy pretext. Meanwhile one of the English's main native translators and advisors is found possibly murdered, and the English round up several natives and have them executed. When these transgressions make it back to the Unami chief's brother, Wamsutta, he rallies the Unamia and begins forming a confederacy of nearby tribes to attack the English. He also turns to the Dutch, who border the Unami to the south, and manages to secure their help. The main Unami attack arrives in early 1667, striking deep into the western part of the colony, and even raiding the town of Concord. Wamsutta is repulsed at Concord by the large garrison there, but not before inflicting massive damage. Quickly the colonists began raising the militias to counterattack the invasion. In Cambridge Thomas Winslow, a former Parliamentarian officer, is appointed head of the military, and he begins raising troops in the city and coordinating from there. In the meantime the western towns are told to raise their forces and simply defend until help arrives. This works to defend several large settlements, but throughout the summer of 1668 almost a dozen smaller settlements in the far west are raided or even completely destroyed. The largest settlement west of Dedham, Brookfield, is surrounded and besieged, and only narrowly saved by Winslow's reinforcements in late September. But in the march west a large portion of the colonial army is caught in ambushes. At the Battle of the Bloody Brook a detachment of 100 men under John Lathrop is attacked, leaving Lathrop and 73 of his men dead of captured. For the remainder of 1668 the natives continue to raid all across the western part of Nauset Bay, but are unable to dislodge the English garrisons, beginning several months of guerilla fighting. Instead the main Unami army regroups in the south and a bloody ground campaign begins all across Unamia. The English do win a major victory however in December, when Governor Bradstreet personally leads an army of 1,000 Englishmen and 200 native allies against a native town located near Unamian Davenport, where about 1,200 native warriors and many more civilians were garrisoned. The town in this area had not been fully committed to Wamsutta's war, and were not expecting an attack. In the ensuing attack the English suffer about 80 and 100 other casualties, but manage to slaughter 600 natives and capture 300 more. We continue to lead the fight in the south, but word reaches us that Wamsutta's confederacy stretches far to the north, and that attacks are also being carried out against New Berkshire and New Haven. We call for a special meeting of the Borealian Confederation to have all northern colonies immediately mobilize for war, and to coordinate our efforts.
- Flaadland Royal Colony: In 1665, the hope that everything would be fine between the Covenanters and the crown are broken once more, as Charles has begun persecuting the Covenanters. He even ordered that episcopacy had to be reintroduced in Scotland. Because of this, many Presbyterians Scots refuse to accept those changes and make their way to Flaadland, which Charles II is all too happy to encourage. After all, he is getting rid of those opposing his ideas and at the same time helping. But to make sure this doesn’t affect Wentworth in the colony, Charles has him replaced by a new governor, James Clerence. Clerence arrive late that year with the new settlers, and Wentworth make his way back to England (is he the Earl of Strafford by now? Is his father dead?). Clerence is to make sure that the Flaadlanders understand that nothing will be imposed on them, and that they will be allowed to continue their lives without being affected by what happen in Scotland. Drusberry is, as usual, here to help the royal governor smooth the news with the population. The new settlers go north, settling further than New Falkirk and building three small towns named New Glasgow, New Stirling and Melrosetown. To make those towns, the settlers are forced to cut a lot of trees, as those settlements are close to a massive forest. This give an idea to Drusberry, who encourage Clerence to organize those settlement around woodcutting, possibly to set up some sort of wood needing industry later on. The plans of Drusberry would never be known however, as he was killed in 1666 by one of his slaves. Clerence, now left without the main local adviser, decide to rely on his English staff for advices. They all told him the same thing. Flaadland need more slaves. So following their recommendation, Clerence order new shipments of slave every year. But although it does help the big religious landowners, this has a bad impact on the Woodwick System. Although it would become more frequent in the following decade, some peasants were beginning to be replaced by slaves, which meant they could no longer pay for their homes and so had to sold them. They are forced to sell their homes to their landlords, who then rent them to tenants who will work on the farms for far less. The peasants, who were up to now owners of their own homes, are slowly becoming poorer tenants. This lead to a small protest in New Falkirk, but nothing of mass like what was seen 30 years before. And the landowners, who only gain in all of this, try to make sure their workers stay calm and peaceful. In a letter to London, Clerence call the Flaadlanders “tamed” and “not the same barbarians that revolted in 1640”. In 1669, the wood in the new settlements begin to pile up. Inspiring himself from the Nauset Bay Colony, Clerence decide to use this wood to tar a shipbuilding industry in Clarendon, although a far smaller one.
- Strafford Bay Colony: In May 1670 Thomas Wentworth passes away peacefully in his sleep. His death is mourned by the colony's old guard, the Royalists, and even some of his former rivals and enemies in the colony, who admire his efforts to improve Strafford Bay. He is buried in a fairly simple grave in Chapel Field, near downtown Trenton. His eldest son, William, who is in England when he hears of the news, becomes the 2nd Earl of Strafford. Many of the honors extended to his father are also extended to him, for example he is invested a Knight of the Garter, and is elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. For the time being he remains in London and becomes a prominent figure in the House of Lords. Similarly in 1672 Thomas' brother George, who had served as governor as well on numerous occasions, passes as well, and their youngest brother, William inherits most of the family properties in the colonies for the time being. Governor Moryson's plan of allying with Flaadland against the Nunsee proves fruitless thus far. Nonetheless Radcliffe and Bennett's regiments are fairly successful in pacifying the natives. A fort is constructed several miles south of Radcliffe, known as Fort Stuart.
- Flaadland Diplomacy: Governor Clerence send a letter to Moryson, accepting the alliance. He explain that the quick change of management and the development of the colony had to pass first, and so did not notice the letter at first, since it was among the affairs classified as "of William Wentworth". If needed, Flaadland will help pacify the natives.
- Unamia: We answer the call from Nauset Bay to act against "King Ezra" and immediately begin calling our militias. Most of the 1668/9 campaign rages across Unamian territory anyway, causing heavy damage to our settlements. The colony invests its trust in David Leslie, 2nd Lord Newark, a military officer from England and son of the famous Scottish general of English Civil War fame. Unlike his father, however, Leslie is untested, having only talked his way to the position after traveling to the colonies as a fortune seeker. Leslie and the head of the militia, Jeremy Clarke, coordinate heavily with the Nausetians and help dislodge the natives around the colony. Then in 1669 Leslie decides to lead a daring expedition to the far south in search of the minor sachem Canoshon. He manages to secure a small victory at the Battle of Turner's Creek, and discovers a detachment of Dutch militiamen as well. Of his original 200 man force he suffers about 40 casualties. The 100 natives suffer 60 casualties, while the 50 Dutchmen suffer about 20. When Leslie pursues the fleeing group south he comes upon the outskirts of the Dutch town of Noortwijk, and walks into an ambush by the Dutch. In the ensuing battle only about 70 Englishmen flee with Leslie back north, and only about 40 make it back to Unamian territory. Around the same time a Dutch squadron under the command of Abraham Crijnssen arrives in the north and we soon find ourselves blockaded and possibly at risk of a naval attack. As a result Leslie focuses on fortifying the cities and defending, hoping that more reinforcements will arrive from the northern Borealian colonies.
In 1670 the Second Anglo-Dutch War concludes in a slight Dutch Victory and the Treaty of Breda, which sees the Dutch seize English sugar factories in Surinam, among other provisions.
By 1670, as part of the War of Devolution, France occupies almost all of the Spanish Netherlands. The Dutch decide to make a coalition against their former ally of France, and declare war, along with Sweden and their former enemy England. The coalition manages to stale the French advance, and Louis XIV eventually agrees to peace, with France annexing a great deal of the Lowlands and Franche-Comté.
Two years after the peace of 1670, France declares war on the Netherlands and is joined by England, beginning a major European war.
In 1670 King Ezra and a large army of natives and Dutch allies lays seige to the major Unamian town of Barrington and largely razes it in the process. Ezra's Dutch allies return to New Netherlands after the Treaty of Breda, temporarily weakening his war effort, but in 1672 the Dutch are able to launch a major assault on the Borealian colonies, even occupying parts of southern Unamia and a few towns north of Nauset Bay.
- Nauset Bay Colony: King Ezra's early campaign against Barrington takes the colonies by surprise, and the Borealians suffer a major blow as a result. Vowing to punish the natives Thomas Winslow marches with one of the largest forces in the colony, 1,400 Englishmen and 200 native allies, and pursues the natives as they return south. Barrington is retaken and what remains is fortified by a garrison. The main force continues west and discovers a major town led by sachem Sassacusca of the Narrabesic, and attacks. In the ensuing battle he suffers some 200 casualties, but manages to kill 200 warriors, 1,000 civilians, and capture about 400. Additionally Sassacusca is killed in the fighting. Additionally Winslow begins preparing for a major counterattack against the Dutch, and begins raiding their territory, but receives word of the Treaty of Breda and begrudgedly turns back. Winslow focuses on the southern front, while Bradstreet is to oversee the forces in the center tasked with defending the border west of Dedham and Concord. George Neale of New Berkshire is appointed commander of the northern forces tasked with defending his own colony and New Haven particularly. Three native tribes, the Nashua, Pennimac, and Arosganok, all conduct raids against the northern towns, as independent allies of Wamsutta's confederacy. Slowly the English begin to turn the tide of the war and throughout 1671 conduct raids against the natives that devastate their numbers. Wamsutta remains in hiding, possibly in the protection of the Dutch. A rumor also begins of possible French assistance to the northern most native tribes, as the French extensively trade in the areas around Nova Cambria. The war seems more or less won by 1672, however news of the Third Anglo-Dutch War changes things. Dutch ships harass our shipping and raid smaller towns, while in the south the Dutch launch an invasion into Unamia. Winslow's forces suffer a defeat south of Warwick at the hands of the Dutch, but their advance is stopped by Jeremy Clarke's local militia. More men are moved to the south to begin planning the invasion of New Netherlands that was previously considered. Meanwhile later that year we receive news that the Dutch have landed in the north and occupied Rockport as well. Northern forces scramble to retake the town. A battle on sea only narrowly repulses the Dutch from continuing to Cambridge, while on land Neale fights a campaign over the next few months to repulse the Dutch in the north.
- Colony of New Britain: The colony continues to grow and prosper thanks to the treaty with the natives and the conclusion of the recent war. By now much of the designated area between the York and Lincoln rivers is well settled, with communities petitioning the government in Norfolk to create more counties. The government responds by creating several, including York County south of Norfolk. Meanwhile tensions flair up with the natives along the eastern peninsula, and a minor war breaks out with them. By 1675 the settlements near Fairfax have expanded to both banks of the Burke River, and east onto the peninsula as far as the Rappahanoc River, while near Swansea both sides of the Lincoln are settled. South of the York River a small trade post is constructed on the coast, called Suffolk. Although technically outside the bounds of the treaty with the natives, they don't dare to challenge the fort there, and the town becomes an outpost between New Britain and Carolina.
- Colony of Unamia: The war continues against the natives and the Dutch, resulting in heavy devastation to western and southern Unamia and the surrounding areas. Militiamen continue to be trained in the towns and sent off the to defend the colony, and all able bodied adult men are now required to train and serve to protect Unamia. David Leslie begins coordinating the invasion of New Netherlands in 1672, now that the Dutch have formally reentered the war. The stretch of land from western Unamia to the North River is heavily populated with native warriors, and so Leslie is against marching directly west. However, the path south is heavily defended with Dutch forts. As a possible diversion Leslie asks that a large portion of the middle/northern garrison be used to follow the Charles River west and attack the North River upriver. Although this section is also defended, it could potentially divert some Dutch forces up river. In the meantime Leslie marches with the main Unamia army south. At the Battle of Fort Wilhelmus, just outside the Dutch-controlled coast area, his approximately army of 800 Englishmen and 150 natives manages to seize the fort after a tough siege (200 dead, 300 wounded), against a force of about 500 Dutchmen (who suffer 300 deaths/wounded and 150 captured). The fort is occupied and fortified while awaiting reinforcements, but most of these reinforcements don't arrive, as the main force is ambushed by the Unami and forced to retreat. Around this time he also learns that the northern force was devastated on the march toward the Northern River and had to retreat. Nonetheless Leslie launches an attack on Stuyvesant with 500 men, leaving 100 behind with the wounded at the fort. The town is much more heavily anticipated, with about 1,200 enemy militamen spread out across the eastern towns, and Leslie retreats back to Fort Wilhelmus. He does however successful repulse a native counterattack, and chases down the warriors to a nearby village, which is promptly razed. By August 1672 about 500 able-bodied soldiers remain at the fort, of which 70 are natives. Elsewhere in the colony Unamia has about 2,500 militamen and 500 native allies, mostly spread out between Kingstown, Barrington, and South Warwick. Later that month Jeremy Clarke marches with the 1,000 men (including 200 natives) from South Warwick intent on clearing the way to Leslie's position and razing all native towns south of Barrington. His reprisal is brutal, destroying numerous villages, and he also arrives in time to support Leslie against a Dutch counterattack. Additionally the southern third of the Nausetian/allied army, numbering about 6,000, finally agrees to aid Leslie on his invasion. Fort Wilhelmus is eventually abandoned after Leslie is able to evacuate his men, and he goes back to guerilla tactics and raids for the remainder of 1672 and early 1673. In the spring of 1673 Cornelis van Tienhoven leads about 1,500 militiamen and 500 European soldiers into southern Unamia to repulse the English, while also raising the garrisons in the eastern towns and forts to 1,000 men total. Their campaigns culminate in the Battle of Mount Hope in May, when the Dutch force of 2,000 men (including 800 natives) meets the English's 2,500 (including 500 natives). The English achieve a major victory, suffering 200 deaths and 400 other casualties, while the Dutch suffer about 400 deaths and 800 other casualties.
- Flaadland Royal Colony:
- Presbyterians continue to come from Scotland, as the secret covenants have become punishable by death in the kingdom. Flaadland, meanwhile, has found great unity in the Covenanters’ movement, and still adder to its ideas. If anything, the actions of Charles in Scotland have convince the Flaadlanders that their current beliefs must be respected and protected. In 1671, a colony wide covenant is organized in the town of Woodwick (a symbolic location, as Donald Woodwick was a fervent Covenanter himself). The meeting see a total of 2000 people assembling together to talk about the future of Presbyterian beliefs in Flaadland. It is to be noted however that at least half of those were the inhabitants of Woodwick. The “Woodwick Covenant” would see the religious leaders’ debate and decide exactly what was their beliefs, rituals and traditions. The most prominent member of the Covenant was the religious landowner James MacRoy, who owned lands in Woodwick. Because of this, he easily led the local crowd in the direction of his choosing. MacRoy silenced any suggestion to accept episcopacy and abandon the Covenant. “This colony was founded on the ideas of John Craig and Donald Woodwick”, he said. Instead, he was able to push the most radical covenanters ideas, the one saw during the civil wars. “Every man is his own priest” became the accepted idea of the day, and in the end the leaders agreed. They would reject episcopacy, they would reject the cult of the saints, and finally they would reject any Christian ritual that is deemed useless to the soul. The Woodwick Covenant would be applied by the congregations quite quickly, and by 1673, it would become the official doctrine of the Flaadlanders.
- Meanwhile, Governor Clerence continued to bring slaves in the colony, making the problem of peasants losing their jobs and homes only worst. But the landowners, for their part, are happy to see this afflux of slave, although it is smaller than in other colonies. It is expected that by the 1690’s, there could but up to a fourth, if not a third, of the plantations operated by slaves, while the rest would still be in the hands of the peasantry. And that peasantry was quickly becoming tenants of what had previously been their own homes. In 1671, Clerence sent a detachment of 100 militiamen to the north, led by Archibald Neivy. Neivy has orders to link with the men of Strafford Bay to help them pacify what’s left, if there is anything left by then. The new ship building industry is greatly improving the economy of the colony. Roads are built between the northern woodcutting towns and New Falkirk, where the wood is then transferred to Clarendon. Since New Falkirk is also the stop for the fishermen of Leven (those of Argyll go directly to Clarendon of Roberttown), New Falkirk is quickly turning into a trade hub for the inland Flaadland. Its market place, which is expanded in 1672, is beginning to be seen as a threat to Roberttown’s hegemony in the colony.
- In January 1674, a new governor arrive to replace Clerence, who return to England. The new governor is an Anglo-Irish man named John Canavan. Canavan is an Anglican, and a zealous one to make it worst. He was sent by Charles II to see if it would be possible to apply episcopacy in Flaadland. Having learned from the writings of William Barton (3rd Baron of Endon), Canavan realize that he’ll have to use the carrot instead of the stick or he may have the same problem as Endon had; a massive revolt. Canavan first try to praise the Flaadlander, explaining that their place in the empire is so great that they have all rights to their own Bishop. But he also explain that although he suggested someone of the colony take the job, there is no ordinated priest in Flaadland. Thus, Canavan try to convince the religious leaders to become true priest so that one of them can become bishop. This weird and sneaky plan to instore episcopacy in the colony is quickly opposed by MacRoy, who encourage the Flaadlanders to stay true to “the Bible, the Covenant and the memory of Donald Woodwick”. MacRoy end up being arrested by Canavan on cooked up charges in September, but he is released two months later due to popular pressure. In March 1675, 14 months after his arrival, Canavan send a letter of resignation to London. In it, he explain that “the savage colonials are too far gone to recognize any biblical truth”. He ended his letter by simply saying “I have tried any reasonable mean to make them accept true hierarchy of god. Any other options would make me Baron of Endon, and I have no desire to accomplish such disgrace.”
- Strafford Bay Colony: We thank Governor Clerence for his aid in the Nunsee War. Archibald Neivy's troops are a great help to the colony, and by late 1670 the Nunsee are finally pacified. In the Treaty of Fort Stuart the Nunsee are forced to recognize a large territorial concession to the English. A square area extending to roughly half way between Radcliffe Inlet and northern Flaadland is to be ceded to Strafford Bay, while the area directly north-northeast of Flaadland is to be ceded to them. More or less in the south the Nunsee are left with only the western half of their territory; the area northwest of Flaadland (and north of Lake Bruce), stretching north. The natives are however allowed to live in the territory, but only if they accept English sovereignty. Meanwhile a second area, comprised of everything east of a line extending diagnolly from Radcliffe Inlet to Weymouth, is to be set aside completely for English settlement. Following the war John Radcliffe retires from military service, and is well regarded in the colony. The area set aside for English settlement is quickly settled by veterans of the war and their families, as well as settlers from Weymouth. With the Nunsee War over the government focuses on other conflicts, such as the Dutch. The annoyance of constant Dutch raids on shipping among the colonies prompts the government in Trenton to begin construction of a large shipyard, in the hopes that over the course of the next few years a proper locally built navy can help supplement the small navy of Strafford Bay. The region isn't as well suited for naval construction, but nonetheless by 1675 the first ships of the region join the fight in protecting the colony.
English and Dutch representatives meet in 1675 to discuss a possible end to their hostilities, while the war continues to rage across in the colonies.
Despite initial setbacks the Borealian Confederation wins a decisive victory in late 1675, threatening the city of New Amsterdam, and also killing one of Wamsutta's main subordinate chieftains.
The Franco-Dutch War ends in 1678 as a French victory, confirming their previous territorial gains, and forcing Spain and the Holy Roman Empire to cede more territory to the Kingdom of France.
The English colonists' successful defense of their lands impresses the Royal government, who now view the colonies as much more rich and capable, and the English begin measures to exploit this for their own gain. To begin both New Berkshire and New Haven see their charters revoked by 1680, with Anglicanism being installed despite the protests of those colonial governments.
Heavy French colonization in the St. Denis River region, the Great Lakes, and West Florida, especially after the Edict of Nantes is revoked, and thousands of French Hugenoats seek refuge in the colonies.
- Nauset Bay Colony: By 1675 the colonists of Nauset Bay and the rest of Borealia have managed to gain the upper hand against King Ezra, and the government in Cambridge hopes to end the war by the end of the year. About half of the colony's militia is sent to aid Unamia in the southern front and the invasion of New Netherlands, and finally they breakthrough at the Battle of Gravesend. The battle sees a large English force under the commands of David Leslie and Thomas Winslow defeat Cornelis van Tienhoven's Dutch force, and several hundred natives under the command of Wessoum, who is killed in the battle. With Gravesend occupied the North River is cut in two, with our forces perched just north of New Amsterdam. Meanwhile we receive news of the treaty being negotiated in Europe, and we abide by those terms. We demand from the Dutch that Wamsutta and other chiefs be handed over to us in exchange for the return of the territory, in addition to other provisions. The Dutch accept our peace treaty in May, however we learn Wamsutta manages to escape. He continues the war in the south and west, but without Dutch support the war is almost lost for the Unami. Meanwhile we focus our attention toward the northern front against the allies of Wamsutta's confederacy. The war does not officially end until March 1676, with the Treaty of Lowell in northern Nauset Bay.
- Flaadland Royal Colony:
- The man replacing Canavan as Royal Governor was Sir Roger Wotton. Wotton gained his knighthood for his service in the Royal Navy during the interregnum. According to some, he was personally recommended by Prince Rupert, under who Wotton would serve most of his career. He also served as a member of the House of Commons for a year in 1672 before resigning after a bitter dispute with fellow parliamentarians. Now 43, he had been rewarded for his service with control of the colony. Although Wotton was a pious Christian, he was surprisingly tolerant of other Christian beliefs, making him the perfect man for Flaadland. The exception to this was Catholicism, as like most Englishmen of the time, Wotton was notably anti-Catholic. He arrived alongside a new massive batch of Covenanters fleeing the persecution in Scotland. When he arrived in the harbors of Roberttown, he exclaimed to the people assembled that “no popish tyranny shall be imposed on the fair peoples of Flaadland”, for which he was acclaimed and instantly gained the sympathy of the Flaadlanders. Although Charles II did encourage him to push episcopacy in Flaadland if possible, Wotton would always push aside for more important matters, like developing the local industries or dealing with the indigenes.
- When he arrived, Wotton was notified by Archibald Neivy of the lands gained during the Nunsee War. Although Wotton had a hard time understanding why neither Clerence nor Canavan invested in those territories (oh, and also why they left the Nunsees alive). Wotton saw all those dispossessed peasants, all angry at their losses and wanting to find their own lands, were they could find new jobs. Wotton encourage those disgruntled farmers to move into the new territories. He also pushed the newly arrived Covenanters to follow this path. Many small congregations begin to appear in the new territories of Flaadland. Those communities are usually only a chapel (with its minister being the leader of the small settlement) and a few houses. Those settlements are usually organized around the Woodwick system and rarely use slaves. The only one of those settlements to become big enough to be called a town is Wottontown, called after Sir Roger Wotton and founded in 1676. Wotton made sure that the town with his name became the trade hub where the most northern settlements could trade instead of going south to New Falkirk of Roberttown (Wottontown is close to the border with the Strafford Bay Colony).
- Of course, there are still Nunsees living in those territories. But treaty or not, many settlers simply murder or brutally expulse the autochthones that occupy the best spots, even if they had accepted English sovereignty. Those expulsed either move to the Strafford Bay side of the partially controlled territories or move back into Nunsee’s lands. Wotton, who has no respect for those “barbarians”, simply wash his hands of the whole affair, explaining in a letter to the governor of Strafford Bay that he had nothing to do with it and that it was simply how people did things in Flaadland. In fact, by 1677 the colonial administration actually opened their borders to trade with the Nunsees and the Sakawes. Wotton encourage the selling of blankets, clothes and tissues to the Indians. However, those items are full of disease, and Wotton goal is to simply have the diseases wipe out the natives of both tribes so that Flaadland could take their lands. The reports of small epidemics in some Nunsees camps by 1679 confirm that Wotton’s horrible plan is working. In a letter to London, Wotton wrote that he was “letting God do his holy work so that our hands would not be soiled with their demonic blood.” Meanwhile, Neivy had begun organizing some sort of militia between the multiple small settlements. But instead of acting to protect the colonists, this militia acted as hunters killing Indians in the partially controlled areas. Those longmen, as they would be called, shot any Indian seen close to a settlement, and would usually pursue him or her until the native was killed or had crossed their borders. In the main part of Flaadland, the longmen are acclaimed as heroes and compared to Donald Woodwick and David Leary during the Sakawe War. In the early 1630’s.
- In 1678, news arrive of the “Popish Plot” in England. When people of Roberttown learn about this, anger start in the streets and marches are organized to express hatred toward the Catholics. In Woodwick, James MacRoy encourage his congregation to burn any catholic object or imagery, and idea spread by the anti-Catholic Wotton to all Flaadland. Ironically, this prove to be a great economic opportunity for the Catholics of Strafford Bay. As there is no catholic items in Flaadland, many Flaadlanders buy some from the Catholics merchants and artisans of Strafford Bay… so that they can burn them in patriotic fervor. Wotton, who take a cut in all these truly weird transactions, invest greatly in the shipbuilding industry in Clarendon. Wotton also invest greatly in all the towns on the coast, notably Argyll and Leven, were fishermen are now joined by sea traders. As a man who made his life into the navy, Wotton wanted to improve the naval aspect of Flaadland. So far, his successes have made him the most popular governor in the history of Flaadland. And since he has the favors of Charles’s cousin (Prince Rupert of the Rhine), he seems set to stay in the colony for a long, long time.
- Colony of Unamia: Our militiamen are sent to lead the charge in the southern front against King Ezra and the Dutch, playing a crucial role in the Battle of Gravesend. Luckily the war ends in 1676 and we begin the slow process of rebuilding the colony and its settlements. Barrington and other places are rebuilt, but many others choose to settle elsewhere as well. In particular some opportunists grab the land between Unamia and New Netherlands, clinging to the series of forts that were either constructed or seized. David Leslie returns to Warwick a hero and is gifted a large plot of land where he constructs a plantation. Jeremy Clarke likewise is well celebrated, and in 1679 manages to ascend to the position of governor.
- Strafford Bay Colony: Following the war with the Nunsee the area granted to the English is heavily settled, especially by those in the Radcliffe region and the city of Weymouth. The area south of Radcliffe Inlet is settled as well, although the small number of natives there are allowed to continue inhabiting the area. Many enter the region hoping to either trade with the natives or convert them to Christianity; both ventures are slowly successful. There is an influx of natives and others entering the Strafford Bay controlled area, and we receive word of violence breaking out against the natives. The governor expresses his concerns that the Flaadlanders are inciting violence against those that the English just signed a treaty with, after Strafford Bay fought extensively to create that peace. Nonetheless there isn't anything in particular he can do to stop the violence, although natives are welcomed into our territory, and the number of Christian converts increases. We also learn that many others flee to the west, or turn to raiding and crime in retaliation for the Flaadlander violence. The peninsula east of Strafford Bay is also heavily settled, as the colony hopes to thoroughly connect the various settlements of the region. Bristol is founded in 1678 on the shore of the Providence River and west of Hampton. Similar developments occur near the densely populated town of Mariapolis, with settlers spread out to as far north as Weymouth.
- Colony of New Britain: The colony continues to grow and prosper thanks to the treaty with the natives and the conclusion of the recent war. By now much of the designated area between the York and Lincoln rivers is well settled, with communities petitioning the government in Norfolk to create more counties. In addition to the land ceded by the natives, the area north of the Lincoln River is also heavily settled, from the County Burke extending west to Swansea. The town of Wilkinsburg is founded by a large group of Protestants west of Burke County, and becomes the center of the new Bates County, named for their leader, a minister named William Bates. Meanwhile Charles County is founded by Royalists in the south. The southern point of the eastern peninsula is called Cape May after the original leader of Williamsport, and a county of the same name is created, along with Nottaway around Easton, Fauquier around Newport (the eastern settlement of Fairfax), and Camden. The first major settlement however comes in 1678 with the founding of Bethesda north of Fairfax.
Debate rages in the English Parliament over Charles II's line of succession, as without a direct heir his unpopular and Catholic brother, James, is set to inherit. In 1683 Charles II and his brother are assassinated while traveling to the town of Newmarket by extremists, but James escapes and is crowned James II.
A rebellion breaks out in southwest England in support of Charles' illegitimate but Protestant son, the Duke of Monmouth. At the same time Argyll's Rising breaks out in England, led by Scottish exile, Archibald Campbell, 9th Earl of Argyll. Both rebellions ultimately fail after a few months.
Conflict in Scottland breaks out between the Presbyterian Covenanters and the government forces under both Charles II and James II/VII.
- Flaadland Royal Colony:
- The Flaadlanders have become far more anti-Catholic, as the news of the Popish Plot, the hatred for episcopacy and the leadership of Wotton only made things worst. People are casually screaming “death to the pope!” and “the only good catholic is a dead catholic”. In that climate of tensions, the double news of the debates about Charles II’s succession and of the Covenanter revolt in Scotland arrive to Wotton’s desk. Having read the history of the 3rd Baron of Endon, Wotton refuse the idea of hiding the truth to the population. Instead, he himself read the news to the population of Roberttown. As did happen forty years before, many Flaadlanders embark for Scotland as volunteers on the side of the Covenanters. They take some of the newly built ships, which Wotton hope would serve as a test run for their quality. In 1681, James MacRoy organize a march from Woodwick to Roberttown in support of the Covenanters in Scotland. In a speech in front of the governor’s mansion (another to Woodwick, who gave a speech at the exact same spot in 1639), MacRoy proudly claim that the people at home are “fighting against the tyranny of the papacy and its puppets.” Wotton is divided about all of this. After all, he is himself one of the most anti-Catholic English, but he is also supposed to be loyal to the crown. In many letters to the King, he urge Charles II to banish his brother James, both from the kingdom and the succession line. In Flaadland, he invest massive sums of moneys in the Longmen, this northern militia organized and led by Archibald Neivy. Wotton hope that by focusing on the anti-native sentiment, the local population will lose its focus on what was happening in the British Isles. This investment also saw the apparition of mass hunting in the North, as Longmen collect fur and animals when they are not killing autochthones. In 1782, Wotton learn of Prince Rupert’s death. In honor of his great friend and ally, Wotton order a statue of Rupert for the market place of Wottontown, and also give his name to Rupert’s Hill, a hill in the middle of the “partially controlled” territories. That same year, MacRoy still write a public letter to Strafford Bay, in which he encourage the population of the colony to “purify their lands of the popish scums and the hellish barbarians”, encouraging nothing less than mob violence and public lynching of the Catholics and the natives. Unlike in 1639, the movements of the early 1680’s are notably more sectarians, and not directly against the royal authority.
- And then, Charles II is assassinated in 1683, leaving the throne to James II&VII. The ascension of James cause protests in the colony, as many refuse to recognize the catholic king as their rightful monarch. Wotton himself is fairly disgusted by the fact that a Catholic is now its king. When he learns of Charles’ death, Wotton’s anti-Catholicism get the better of him. Although he declare the renewed loyalty of Flaadland to Scotland and its Parliament, he refuse to acknowledge James as his sovereign, and in a letter to the other colonies encourage his fellow governors to do the same. This make Wotton the most popular man in Flaadland. But although his actions made him popular to the colonists, his next actions would quickly lose him any support in London. In August, Wotton would convert to Flaadlander Presbyterianism (which by that time was beginning to be dubbed “Covenantism”) in a ceremony oversees by James MacRoy. This move make Wotton “one of them” in the eyes of the Flaadlanders. But in London, his allies and friends are disgusted by the move, especially with the current war with the Covenanters. Soon, people begin to whisper that Wotton hope to make himself some sort of king in the colony. In September, Wotton discretely write multiples letters to the County Palatine of the Rhine, urging the 15 years old nephew of Prince Rupert, Charles Edward of Wittelsbatch, to take the throne of England from the terrible catholic king James. When one of those letters is caught by James agent, the king decide he had enough of this troublesome governor. He send a small fleet to Flaadland to have Wotton removed, by force if necessary. When the troops arrive, they are met by a mob, who refuse to let them disembark. Shots are fired from both sides, leading to a dozen of deaths. Seeing how things were turning, Wotton chose to surrender himself instead of seeing Flaadland burn in revolt. Wotton was taken back to London, where he would be put on trial for treason and executed on the 11th of July, 1684.
- OOC (Who the heck is Charles Edward?): Charles Edward of Wittelsbatch (OTL: 1660-1690) was the seventh son (11th child overall) of Elector Palatine Charles I (from his second marriage), who was the brother of Prince Rupert of the Rhine. His claim to the throne is from his grandmother (Charles and Rupert’s mother), Elizabeth Stuart, the sister of Charles I of England. So he is the great-grandson of James I&VI. This may seems far fetch, but it is in fact a better claim then what George I had OTL (George was also the grandson of Elizabeth Stuart, but through his mother, the sister of Prince Rupert).
- OOC (Isn’t there better options?): Yes, but Wotton did not consider them for different reasons. When it comes to Charles Edward’s brothers, they are either all dead or far too young. The only exception is Elector Palatine Charles II, the eldest son of Elector Palatine Charles I. The problem with Charles II is that he is childless and his heir is a catholic (his brothers from the second marriage were excluded from succession). So Wotton would not support a guy who would put them all in the same situation. The other obvious candidate is William III of Orange-Nassau. William is both the grandson of Charles I of England and the husband of his cousin Mary, James II&VII daughter (yes, you read that right). The reason why Wotton won’t support William is because A) Wotton participated in the wars with the Dutch Republic, so have a personal distrust of them, and B) He simply prefer the idea of having one of Rupert’s relatives on the throne.
- Wotton is replaced by William Copinger. Copinger is a Catholic and a staunch supporter of James II&VII. Creckett make multiple mistakes as governors, mistakes that would end up costing him his life. First of all, he brought a priest with him, Father John Creckett. Copinger had his troops vacate the main church of Roberttown so that Father Creckett could use it for his personal use. Then, Copinger made severe new laws against burning religious icons. The massive number of Covenanters who arrived from Scotland were then “encourage” to choose Catholicism, which they didn’t do. This attempt to convert the newcomers simply pushed them to settle in towns outside of Roberttown. Copinger ordered the stop of the Longmen assaults on the Indians, instead encouraging them to convert to Catholicism. He also sent troops in the North so they could assure protection of the region instead of the Longmen. Finally, Copinger gained his place alongside the 3rd Baron of Endon when he chose to abandon Roberttown as the colonial capital, choosing instead New Falkirk. For the two months during which Copinger lived in New Falkirk, the town prospered, making it the only place where Copinger would have some good reputation.
- With little surprise, Copinger was assassinated in 23 May 1684, only seven months after taking office. Father Creckett would chose to flee to Strafford Bay to escape the fate of his protector. As for the English troops, many of them were no fonder of the Catholicism of Copinger than the Flaadlanders, and simply made themselves quiets and ready for the next governor, although a good number of them fled to the neighbouring colonies. The mastermind behind the assassination were never found, but the three men that stabbed the governor were arrested. With Copinger dead, the colony felt into the hands of a religious landlord in Roberttown named Malcom Bexley. Only 39, Bexley was never less a far safer alternative to MacRoy or Neivey, whose appointment as Acting Governor would simply have led to a new invasion from London. Bexley tried his best to look like a loyal subject of Scotland in his letters, which is why he managed to stay in office until the arrival of a replacement. Still, Bexley did encourage autonomous trade in Flaadland, believing that the colonies deserved control of their own trade. His time as Acting Governor would play a big role in his ideas, which he would wrote about during the following years of his life. Those writings mark the first true Flaadlander text in favor of Flaadlander autonomy from the metropole, which would inspire many later leaders of the colony.
- Colony of New Britain: The news of Charles II's death arrives in the colony of New Britain, and he is mourned by the Royalists and Cavaliers. Even some of the more Parliamentarian don't hate the late king, as he is remembered for his merry personality, and his return to normalcy after the Protectorate era. Nonetheless the new governor, John Dryden swears his allegiance to the new king, James II. Around this time the town of Jamestown, and the surrounding James County, which were founded prior to James' ascension, are developed greatly, with many new places being named in honor of the king. By the time of Dryden's governance there are fifteen counties in the colony of New Britain, with many more places petitioning for new counties. In 1681 Thomas Smith is sent by the governor to lead a formal army of militiamen against the Mattatoni tribe and others in the eastern peninsula. This is part of Dryden's goal to completely annex the peninsula into the colony, extending its borders to the Rappahanoc River. In the meantime, the four major towns of the peninsula, Camden, Newport, Easton, and Williamsport are fortified by the governor with larger garrisons, which also sparks more settlement in the region. Another town, Wilmington, is also founded northeast of Williamsport in 1682. Meanwhile many more settlers begin to enter the region south of the River York, as the Norfolk and York counties become more densely populated. This is technically illegal according to the earlier treaty with the natives, but Dryden looks the other way, hoping to extend the colony also from York to Suffolk, which at this time is a small town and fort extremely isolated from the rest of the colony. A religious leader named Jacob Pastorius, from Franconia, Germany, is allowed to lead his small congregation of Germans to settle the southern area formally, as a way to get rid of the German population in Norfolk. They found Germantown in 1683, southeast of Yorktown. These encroachments do lead to some violence with the natives, but by now the Monatan Confederacy has largely vacated the far southeast anyway, and the largest concentrations of natives are now southwest of the York River, west of Arlington and Monatan County, and north of Swansea. Swansea, the center of Prince Rupert County, named for the late general and royalist, becomes particularly interested in the area north of the Lincoln River, and conflict breaks out with the natives there in small numbers.
- Nauset Bay Colony: The announcement of James II's ascension to the English throne is met with protests by some in Nauset Bay. The overwelmingly anti-Catholic and Puritan population of the colony distrusts a Catholic king, and the government is very reluctant to accept James II as monarch. The population in Cambridge is only quelled by prominent and respected leaders like Thomas Winslow, who point out that without an heir England will surely revert back to a Protestant monarch quite soon. Increase Holt, a Puritan minister and author, is appointed the new governor of the colony during this turbulent time in English politics. He tries to guide the colony toward peaceful compromise with the English crown, while also appeasing the Puritan hierarchy. After much delay Anglicanism is finally forced upon the colony, ending the Puritan monopoly on religion in the colony. Most of the people inhabiting the colony are still Puritan/Separatists, and continue their practice unharmed, but the first Anglican church opens in Cambridge in 1683. Holt meanwhile points out that the colonists should be glad that Catholicism isn't forced upon the colony. Nonetheless many as a result continue to migrate out into the countryside and establish their own communities, where whatever religion they want can reign supreme. The rebuilding after King Ezra's war continues, with aid being sent to the frontier to help rebuild and fortify towns that were harmed in the war. With the treaty with the natives established, and the increased militry presense in the frontier making people feel safer, many head west like never before. The area from the end of the Charles River all the way south to Unamian Barrington is heavily settled, as is the area north of the river. Lowell, the site of the recent treaty and home to a large garrison and fort, becomes a major town. Meanwhile a town called Andover is founded in the far west, and becomes the largest town so far west (located west of Concord and northwest of Kingstown). The end of the war also sees some choose to settle north of the Mystic River in Unamian and New Berkshire territory.
- Colony of Unamia: We are glad that the war with the Dutch and the natives is offer, and we begin the long task of undoing the damage done by the war. The towns of Barrington and Kingstown are both rebuilt with a fort in each, both garrisoned by soldiers. Some of the colonists settlers attempt to quickly claim the areas formally controlled by our enemies, and settlers pour into the region north of the eastern section of New Netherlands. Almost 70% of the native population of the region has been killed or captured, and the area east of the Dutch-controlled river is fairly vacant. King Ezra/Wamsutta himself seems to have migrated to the northwest, and the former territories of the Unami is now ripe for settlement, although contested with the Dutch. Governor Jeremy Clarke, an experienced war veteran, sees the possibility of another conflict looming, and orders the construction of multiple forts in the south, creating an unofficial border with the Dutch.
- Strafford Bay Colony: The death of Charles II at the hands of assassins causes alarm and mourning across Strafford Bay. The Royalists are glad that the culprits are brought to justice, and that James II ascends to the throne, while the Catholics of the colony are glad that a Catholic monarch has taken the throne. Meanwhile William Wentworth, 2nd Earl of Strafford, decides to travel back to the colonies, and in 1681 he is easily elected governor as well. He sees the troublesome news in England and fears another civil war or similar turmoil, and monitors the situation closely. In the meantime he has the Providence Island fortifications strengthened and repaired. The entire eastern side of the colony is expanded greatly, with the various settlements of the east being linked up by roads. The governor endorses settlement on both banks of the Congaratan River, with a goal of expanding the colony to the entirity of "Mary's Peninsula" to connect and defend the northern half of the colony. But at the same time many more people enter the western part of the colony that was ceded in the Nunsee War. The area of partial control continues to be settled as well, and more natives are converted to Christianity. Father Creckett, from Flaadland, arrives in the colony, and after a petition to the government, is allowed to lead a missionary group to convert natives to Catholicism, alongside the already existing Protestant missionaries.
A powerful and expansionist confederacy of five natives tribes, known as the Loyahanna, who originally controlled a large territory roughly stretcing from the Great Lakes to French-controlled Lake Delaporte, manage to subjugate the tribes north of Dutch New Netherlands, as far west as past the Great Lakes, and far to the south, in an effort to dominate the fur trade between the various European powers. They raid as far south as Blackwall and the outskirts of Strafford Bay, and as far north as the major French settlements of Bécancour and Longueuil.
By late 1685 James II has withdrawn all the colonial charters of the Borealian colonies. He orders the union of Nauset Bay, Unamia, New Berkshire, New Haven, Nova Cambria, and all settlements north of New Netherlands into the "Dominion of Borealia", based on the model used by the Viceroy of New Spain, much to the dismay of the individual colonial governments. The new governor, Joseph Edmund, arrives in Cambridge and begins establishing the Church of England across the colonies, issuing new taxes, laws against town meetings, and other reforms.
Wotton's discourses inspire Charles II's third illegitimate son, now the eldest, Charles FitzRoy, 2nd Duke of Cleveland, to make a claim to the throne, as he is Anglican. His plot doesn't take off however, and he flees to Flaadland in the hopes of becoming an influential leader there instead, although unaware of the political situation in the colony. Meanwhile Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine allegedly also considers claiming the English throne, although he finds that he has lost a great deal of Parliamentarian support after recent moves to align with the French. He dies in 1680 before he can make any further plans. Most of his sons (including Charles Edward), are also discredited as they are considered illegitimate, as products of a bigamous relationship, while candidate Charles II dies in 1685, beginning a potential succession crisis over the Palatinate.
Louis XIV crosses the Rhine in 1687 and begins a war in Europe, partially over the succession of the Palatinate. Around the same time the Dutch Republic is brought into the war against France, while Parliament is attempting to persuade William III to take the English crown. In 1689 William lands in England with support from the English people. Desperate, James II accepts an offer from the French to send troops to England. Although the majority of English soldiers defect to William's side, those remaining loyal to the king, and their French allies, clash with William in southern England, while James II flees.
In the American colonies war breaks out between the Dutch and the French, both utilizing native allies. Governors loyal to James II order an army be raised against the Dutch colonies, while William issues orders that the colonies support him against the French. By the end of 1689 both sides stand posed to strike against the English colonies.
- Nauset Bay Colony (part of the Dominion of Borealia): The announcement of the colony of Nauset Bay's union with the other nearby colonies of Borealia into a unified colony is met with protests and heavy dissatisfaction from the Puritan ruling class of Cambridge. When newly appointed governor Joseph Edmund arrives he creates a council in Cambridge that is supposed to be composed of representatives from all the former colonies, although because of the inconvenience and expenses of travel the council is almost entirely Nausetian. Edmund has Anglican churches constructed across Nauset Bay, a move that immediately causes resentment. Numerous new laws are introduced, including taxes on livestock, imports, alcohol, and other goods. When some of the towns of the region refuse to collect the taxes or assess people's property, Edmund has them arrested or fined, and slowly the laws take effect. Next Edmund sought to restrict town meetings, and a law is passed stating that town meetings will be limited to one per year. This also sparks protest, with some believing that this law violates the Magna Carter. Over the next few years the new government works to sort out the overlapping and poorly written land charters and claims, in an effort to raise colonial revenue. The following year Edmund personally travels to the other colonies to ensure his rules are being carried out. In the north he begins drafting plans to rearrange the colonial boundries, uniting Portland with New Berkshire, for example. In 1687 Edmund receives news of French-Loyahanna hostilies, which also sparks problems with the Wanekani, a confederacy of the Nashua, Pennimac, and Arosganok, former enemies of the English. He personally leads an expedition to the north to push back the confederacy. This expands the borders of the northern colonies, but at the expense of turning the confederacy firmly into a French alliance. It becomes clear that another war is looming over the horizon, and Edmund has the people of Borealia begin training and raises militias. War more or less formally breaks out in 1688, with Edmund leading a force to raid the French towns situated around Nova Cambria. When word of the Williamite War reaches him in late 1689, he returns to Cambridge intent of preserving his rule and James II's wishes.
- Flaadland Royal Colony:
- The first months of 1685 in Flaadland are marked by a deep hatred of Catholicism, Neivy and his Longmen slaughtering the last of the Nunsee still living in Flaadland territories and the disputes between Bexley and MacRoy (which remind the oldest Flaadlanders of the disputes between MacEalar and Woodwick). Adding to all is the fact that in March, the first slave was freed. The African born Kuende was converted and baptized to Presbyterian Convenantism by his master. As a Christian, he was automatically freed. The freedom of Kuende Covenant (as he was now named) sparked new debates over slavery in the colony, and the freed slaves that would follow Kuende would honor him and their religion by taking the family name Covenant.
- This was the situation Charles FitzRoy stepped in when he disembarked of his ship later that year, accompanied by a few loyal friends and co-conspirators. The arrival of FitzRoy was met with incomprehension and dubiousness. Bexley and the citizens of Roberttown where expecting the arrival a new English Governor, possibly with troops to oppress them. Instead, they inexplicably had FitzRoy hanging in the harbor. Not knowing what to do with him, Bexley housed the royal bastard and his “court” in one of the biggest mansions of Roberttown while he wondered what to do with him. But a week later, FitzRoy gave a rousing speech in front of his home, where he praised the memory of Wotton, which made him an immediate sensation in the colonial capital. Due to various issues, it would not be until January 1686 with the arrival of Covenater refugees that Flaadland would finally learn why FitzRoy had fled England. FitzRoy became a celebrated hero overnight. In the north, a new town founded by Neivy was named FitzRoy after the young man, and MacRoy organized a march in his honor, where in front of a crowd he was acclaim as “Prince of Scotland”. Bexley, who was seeing this unfold with a watchful eye, begin realizing that this “Prince” may be the key to gain more autonomy for Flaadland. In February, Bexley met with FitzRoy and William Plair, a key ally of FitzRoy during his plot and his main advisor in exile. Bexley offer the governorship to FitzRoy, expressing a (false) desire to simply retire and leave the colony in his hands. Plair, who is far more warry of all this, advise FitzRoy that they should keep a low profile, but FitzRoy’s ambitions get the better of him and he accept the offer.
- In England, the King is unpleased by all this, but realize that his nephew would simply gain in popularity if he was removed and brought back to England. For now, James decide to simply refuse to recognize FitzRoy as Governor of Flaadland, even less as “Prince of Scotland” as the Flaadlanders call him. Meanwhile, FitzRoy is settling quite comfortably in the governor’s mansion. Plair becomes the most influent official of the colonial government, and his personal talent in administration allow the colony to continue its development, even though it is being singled out by King James II&VII. But Plair quickly runs into multiple problems, including the naïve ambition of his master. Only two months after FitzRoy taking of the governorship, MacRoy and his supporters organized themselves in front of the governor’s mansion. Against the advices of Plair, FitzRoy goes to meet them in public, appearing on his balcony. There, he is moved by the desire of the mob and affirm his desire to uphold the Woodwick Covenant and that no Catholic was welcomed in Flaadland, which was exactly what MacRoy wanted (and what Plair didn’t). A similar scene appear in the north, where FitzRoy is moved by a crowd of Longmen chanting “Ling Live Prince Charles of Scotland!”, leading him to give his full support to the Longmen and praise them as heroes, which shock both Pair and the few Strafforder officials present at the speech.
- Realizing that he need help to deal with the situation, Plair reluctantly advice FitzRoy to recall Bexley to the colonial administration in April 1687. By then, Bexley has already written his book about the idea of autonomy in the colony, “The Flaadlander Right”, which would in time become a big success among the Flaadlander elite. FitzRoy also suggest bringing MacRoy in, but both Plair and Bexley are vehemently opposed to the idea. Bexley in particular has a personal hated of MacRoy, considering him nothing more than a populist whose hardline religious ideas were a hindrance to the future of Flaadland. Then, the France launch a war, bringing in the Dutch Republic. FitzRoy allow a group of militiamen from Clarendon to take a ship and attack the merchant ships loyal to France. But when a few months later news arrive that the corsairs had been attacking ships on both sides, they are recalled to Flaadland. FitzRoy write a letter to his cousin Mary Stuart (the wife of William III of Orange) to excuse the conduct of his corsairs. From that point on, Flaadland stay out of the war, only acting as trading partner for the Dutchs if needed. During that period, FitzRoy also spend gold to turn the Governor’s mansion into a 17th century castle, which he name the Villiers Castle after his mother’s maiden name.
- Since England did not recognize FitzRoy, the colony had been acting with a great deal of autonomy ever since the royal bastard had taken up the office. Bexley feel that it is now time to cement this autonomy. In November 1688, Bexley explain his idea to the governor. Although Plair vehemently oppose it, FitzRoy’s dreams of fame get the better of him. On the 21st of November, the Royal Colony of Flaadland is officially renamed the Grand Duchy of Flaadland, and a week later Charles FitzRoy become the 1st Grand Duke of Flaadland. In the declaration that is read to the people, it is explained that “Flaadland shall now a fiefdom under the crown of Scotland”. The idea was that by turning the colony into a domain, it could be considered equal to the rest of the Scottish fiefdom. And since it would be part of Scotland, the Flaadlanders would be allowed deputies in the Parliament of Scotland. As for the Grand Duchy, Bexley believed that it would not fit a Prince of Scotland (self-proclaimed or not) to be simply “duke”, and that Flaadland was far bigger and greater than the other domains of England. This change would also take away many of the prerogatives of the metropole, most importantly the power to appoint the ruler of Flaadland (as it would now be hereditary). This was how Bexley though things would go on paper, at least. Although some in the “former” colony were uneased by this declaration (most notably in Clarendon and New Falkirk) they never less rallied behind their Grand Duke. Bexley was appointed “Chancellor to the Ducal Affairs”, which made him the right-hand-man of the Grand Duke. Plair also joined the Grand Duchy has “Chief Intendant”, hoping to moderate FitzRoy in his enterprise. When he heard of this, MacRoy quickly wrote a letter to the Grand Duke, asking him to make “Covenantism” the official religion of the Grand Duchy. But for once, Charles did not comply with the demands, instead following the advices of Plair. Although he reaffirmed the Woodwick Covenant, he proclaimed that all religions would be tolerated, although Catholics were forbidden to participate in the administration. Charles was able to rally much needed support by betrothing himself to the bastard daughter of Sir Robert Wotton and a local Flaadlander woman, the 10 years old Elizabeth Eford (being the daughter of a knight, she was technically the only person of some nobility in the colony other than Grand Duke himself).
- When King James II&VII heard of this, he refused to recognize anything of this “Grand Duchy”. He had the parliament strip FitzRoy of titles in England (most notably Duke of Cleveland), but soon after William landed in England, which occupied all his efforts. He still talked about this with his cousin Louis XIV, who agreed that letting some colonial governor declared himself “Grand Duke” would set a bad precedent. A small expedition of Frenches and Englishmen loyal to James arrived in May 1689. But their first mistake was to try to land in Leven, which was extremely loyal to the Grand Duchy. Although they did take Leven, the fighting was far more fierce than anticipated. Disputes between the Frenches and the English made things difficult, and soon both group took different paths, the French holding the town while the English marched north to rally the small settlements. Instead, they were ambushed on multiple occasions by Archibald Neivy and his Longmen. An ensuing raid of the Longmen on Leven convinced the expedition to pack up and leave.
- In recompense for their services, the Grand Duke officialised the Longmen, making them a legitimate (at least in Flaadland) part of the local military. Bexley, who had written letters to the volunteers in Scotland, learned that the Grand Duchy had been ratified by an assembly of Scottish Covenanters (but not by the Parliament). Bexley decided that it was time to send their delegates to the Parliament of Scotland. At the head of those deputies was Richard Woodwick the Younger, the grandson of Donald Woodwick. Bexley hoped that if Woodwick was able to make it in the Parliament, the Grand Duchy would be ratified as a valid part of the Kingdom of Scotland, making it far harder to dissolve it. Meanwhile, French agents had begun allying themselves to the Sakawe, planning to use them to destroy (or at least raid) the Grand Duchy. The Sakawe only start by ending all trade relations, which ticked of the Flaadlander merchants that there may be something going on. As the war between James and William rage on, the Grand Duke decide to support neither. This would prove a grave mistake, one that could possibly doom the future of the Grand Duchy of Flaadland.
- Colony of New Britain: John Dryden proves to be a very popular and successful governor, and ultimately serves as governor from 1680 to 1684. The mission to subjugate the entirety of the eastern peninsula is completed by the end of Dryden's final term, and Rappahanoc and Dryden Counties are created as a result by his replacement, John Sharpe. During the final months of Dryden's term a crisis erupts. The shakey peace with the Monatan Confederacy in the west is questioned with Green's Rebellion, an armed insurrection led by Thomas Green. Green leads a faction against the natives, despite the government forbidding it, as per their earlier treaty with the natives. Green's faction manages to gain a great deal of influence in the House of Burgesses, and laws are passed increasing suffrage rights to landless freemen. Dryden continues to oppose Green, and so Green forces the assembly to grant him his will by force, by threatening Norfolk with armed soldiers. Over the course of year Green's army grows to several hundred men, and skirmishes with Dryden's supporters, even setting fire to Dryden's house. Green eventually dies unexpectedly of disease and the rebellion slowly falls apart, but nonetheless Dryden resigns later that year and is replaced by Sharpe. By 1685 the rebellion is over, but its influence shapes the government policy in Norfolk. At the end of that year the government elects to send raiding parties agains the Monatan Confederacy, and the Third Anglo-Monatan War breaks out. The natives were already weakened by this stage, and within two years the area from Yorktown to Suffolk, the area west of Bates County, and much of the western frontier, is conquered by the English. Sharpe is eventually replaced by Benjarmin Hart in 1687, who is replaced by John Brooke in 1688. One of Brooke's final acts in office is to ratify a law that changes the capital of the colony from Norfolk to Lincoln, which is to take effect in 1690. By this time Lincoln has grown to one of the largest cities in New Britain, and is picked as a more central location.
- Colony of Unamia: The appointment of Joseph Edmund as governor of Unamia and the rest of Borealia, as the unified Dominion of Borealia, is highly unpopular in Unamia. For the first two years of Joseph Edmund's governorship the former governors and councilmen in Warwick largely ignore most of his orders and continue to rule semi autonomously. This is until Joseph Edmund travels to Warwick personally and has the governors arrested and replaced by loyal deputies. Edmund's governance is accepted for now after that, although many continue to be distrustful of the government. There is an increase of settlements in the west as people move away from the deputies in Warwick and the other major cities. The area south of Barrington is particularly popular, as the area is dense with defenses and forts after King Ezra's War. People also move to the west, although this territory is much more dangerous and near King Ezra's domain. Some of the former governors, such as Jeremy Clarke, remain in Warwick as popular and influential leaders during the Edmund regime, helping to quell unrest. News of the Loyahanna tribe's exploits reaches us after it becomes clear they are raiding parts of western Borealia, or the natives tribes near there. The most common problem is the Loyahanna pushing the Miskwà Confederacy and others east, who in turn are forced into our territory. As such light skirmishes breakout all throughout 1686/7. With the outbreak of war between the Dutch and the French the colony officially is neutral, however many are quick to try and harm the Dutch in any way, and some Englishmen independently join the fight against the Dutch in the south. The struggle between James II and William III complicates things, as the majority of the colony's inhabitants would rather see a Protestant king like William over the Catholic James, but at the same time the Dutch are unpopular in the colony. As a result the colonists hesitate when ordered to mobilize and began preparing for war. The main force of militiamen that are raised, under the command of Jeremy Clarke and James Leigh, target the natives primarily, to avoid taking a side in the greater conflict, but nonetheless many in the south begin open attacks against the Dutch.
- Strafford Bay Colony: Governor William Wentworth's initiative to expand the colony in the north continues and proves largely successful. Northport is founded in 1686 up the Congratan River from Mariapolis and Essex, and becomes one of the most northernly settlements thus far. That record is quickly broken, however, as a group of mostly Puritans from Weymouth migrates across the Strafford River and founds Hartford the following year located northwest of Northport. In the east meanwhile the "Strafford Peninsula" is completely settled, with the town of Taunton being incorporated in 1685 northeast of Gloucester. From here the peninsula is connected to the south, with the region between Henrietta, Bristol, and Hampton being settled by plantation owners. When he learns of the king's son arriving in the colonies, Wentworth sends a letter to Charles FitzRoy proposing a marriage between him and his daughter, Anne, who is about the same age, but the offer arrives after before Wentworth can learn of Fitzroy's betrothal. In the event that Fitzroy goes through with his betrothal instead, he proposes the possibility of a different arrangement. When war breaks out between the Dutch and the French the colony remains neutral, although raiding parties from the Loyahanna, who are allied to the Dutch, are sighted north of the colony, which causes some alarm. The governor orders the navy be expanded in order to protect the bay and our shipping, and that militias be raised in the north, just in case the war escalates and travels further south. In 1689 word reaches the colony of the struggle between James II and William of the Dutch Republic. Wentworth and most of the colony's leadership are initially loyal to James II, although by this time most of the colony's population is Puritan, Parliamentarian, or otherwise inclined to support William, and a great deal of unrest and uncertainty grips the colony. Tensions rise between the overwelmingly Protestant population and lower classes, and the Roman Catholic elite who helped found the colony. Although Wentworth tries to appease both sides, expanding the number of Protestants in government and the military for the first time, a new faction arrises in Trenton, known as the Associators, a pro-Puritan militia/paramilitary group led by Nehemiah Blant. Although still a popular governor, William Wentworth plans to step down from his position as governor, partially because of the religious conflict. Former military officer Michael Warren is selected to begin his term in 1690. This doesn't completely quell the growing unrest, however. Later that year a full scale battle breaks out near the town of Lawrence, south of Weymouth. In the ensuing battle a force of approximately 200 Puritans defeats the small government garrison, and proceeds to murder or expell a group of Catholics as well. The crack down for the event is severe, with a dozen ringleaders being hanged by the end of the year, and although this temporarily weakens the Associators, conflict continues to loom over the horizon, with many waiting to see the final result of the "revolution" in England. It is discovered that one of the former acting governors of the colony, William Harmon, is among the conspirators, and he is fined a lofty amount of money and tobacco, and sent into exile in Blackwall.
James II is defeated in battle in late 1690 and by the end of the year William III and Mary are crowned monarchs in London. A month later Scotland also accepts them as monarch. During this time the Toleration Act is passed guaranteeing religious toleration to Protestant nonconformists (but not necessarily to Roman Catholics, non-trinitarians, and non-Christians). In 1691 the English Bill of Rights is passed, granting a number of rights to English citizens.
William goes to war in Ireland against James II and his French and Irish supporters. Over the course of the next three years he will battle against the Jacobites for control of Ireland and Scotland.
The war between the Dutch (and now English) versus the French continues in Europe. In the colonies Nova Cambria is separated from the Dominion of Borealia after a brief revolt, but Governor Joseph Edmund manages to retain rule over the rest of the colonies after pledging allegiance to William.
The Wanekani Confederacy, allies of the French, conduct a series of devasting raids against New Berkshire and northern Nauset Bay. A series of battles also takes place between the French and the Loyahanna, and between the French and the English in French Arcadia and Nova Cambria.
The upstart grand duchy established in Flaadland is rejected by the English and Parliament, although it begins a debate on the nature of the English colonies and the possibility of them ever ascending to the same rank as English territory. Nonetheless almost all in England view the colonists as less than the English. Meanwhile the Scottish support the idea of preserving the Grand Duchy, as a Scottish colony, much to the dismay of the English.
- Colony of Carolina: The colony of Carolina, created by the appointment of Charles II's lords proprietor, flourishes under the leadership. Of the original proprietors, many have since died or left the project, but those who remain exercise complete control over the colony in all walks of life. The rulers of the colony decide to change the government slightly, declaring that there shall be a council, half composed of men directly appointed by the Lords Proprietor, and the other half elected by only the most wealthy landowners. There is also to be a governor appointed by the lords proprietor. The capital at Charleston in the meantime has become a large city, equipped with a large dock for trade and shipping back to England. The main colony around Charleston sees the most general settlement from England, with the most densely populated towns, however, several Lords Proprietors choose to found their own settlements up and down the coast, and because of the vast distance between these settlements, many are quasi independent and run autonomously by their local governors.
- Nauset Bay (Part of Borealia): After personally leading the army for some time, Joseph Edmund instead appoints Sylvanus Alden, a loyal commander and former soldier in the New Model Army, as head of the armed forces of Borealia. All colonies of Borealia are ordered to raise their militias, fortify frontier outposts, and send a sizeable portion of their men to join the main force assembling under Alden. The commander's first order of business is to launch an invasion of the Wanekani Confederacy, who are fierce French allies responsible for the attacks against the northern parts of the Dominion of Borealia. Over the course of the next year numerous skirmishes occur, but the English ultimately are able to push the natives back from the main settlements. It is discovered, however, that numerous French forts exist between the two northern rivers in Nova Cambria, as well as along the nearby lake to the northwest. One of Nova Cambria's largest settlements, St. John's, located on the Cabot River north of New Haven, is raided. The natives, aided by the French, manage to capture Fort Bristol, located on the western part of the river, and the Borealians retreat south to New Haven, temporarily being cut off from Nova Cambria. It is during this time that Joseph Edmund's deputy governor in Nova Cambria, John George, is overthrown in a relatively bloodless coup led by Nova Cambrian native Simon Nicholson. Luckily the distraction of the war stops Edmund from restoring order in the colony, and in 1692 it is confirmed as independent by William III in England. Nonetheless both colonies still have to work together against the French. Throughout the rest of the summer of 1692 a series of close battles occur in the outskirts of New Haven, and Dover, New Berkshire is also badly raided and damaged. At the same time a plan is created in Cambridge for a naval attack against the French. Sir William March is dispatched with an army of 500 provincial soldiers from Nauset Bay and 250 seamen, aboard eight ships, to take Port Royal, the largest French city in Arcadia, located on the southeast corner of the island off the coast. The attack is successful and the city is captured with only about 200 casualties. From there March rallies with the local garrisons of the Nova Cambria intending to capture the rest of the island. He finds that the two other French settlements, Latour and St. Ignace, are well fortified, and is delayed well into 1694. Elsewhere Edmund has any remaining militias in the colony turn their attention toward the old enemies of the colonies, Wamsutta's alliance of tribes to the west, who have splintered into several different factions, some allied with the Dutch, others with the French. Unknown to Edmund, many of the elite in Cambridge begin planning a revolt to overthrow him, but the war distracts them from acting for the time being, especially when a large garrison of soldiers from England remain in the city. Increase Holt is appointed the leader of the conspiracy, with several hundren Puritan militiamen remaining near the city awaiting orders to attack. Meanwhile Holt sends a letter to Unamia and other colonial leaders, hoping to gather support for the revolt before he acts.
- Colony of New Britain: The chaos from Green's Rebellion is quelled and the colony focuses its efforts on the war with the Monatan Confederacy instead. The war concludes quickly, as this time the colonists are much stronger and well organized, and the rival native confederacy has largely disppaited by this point. Within the next few years the area between the northern sections of the Burke River and the Lincoln River is claimed and settled, while the main section of the colony expands due west. Several new counties are created as a result of the expansion as well. The area between the York River and Suffolk is also settled, with Germantown and other small settlements in the area growing significantly. Lincoln officially becomes the new capital of the colony and the colonial government is moved there. A new capital building to house the legislature is also constructed there.
- Strafford Bay Colony: The news of William III's victory over James II in England reaches the colony and causes a great deal of alarm. We immediately state our loyalty to the new king to remain in his good graces. The Williamite victory causes the Associators to begin planning a revolt in earnest, believing that the Protestant king and government will support their replacement of the "popist" regime in Strafford Bay with a Protestant-led government. In 1690 Nehemiah Blant leads a revolt in Trenton of several hundred Puritans, and wins a quick battle against government forces. Elsewhere in the colony Puritans take up arms, causing violence against wealthy landowners, Catholics, and other targets, resulting in dozens of deaths. The Associators essentially intimidate or force most of the Catholics and other political opponents out of the assembly, and manage to rig the subsequent election to stack the assembly in Trenton with Puritans. Although the majority of the population is Puritan and supportive of Blant, this move is viewed as tyrannical, and sways some away from the Associators. In an effort to improve public opinion, Blant rejects the governorship when offered by his supporters, and instead William Harmon, who returns from exile with a pardon from the Puritans, is elected governor. Harmon has Catholicism and Anglicanisn outlawed immediately, and for the rest of the year there is uncertainty about the future of the colony. Conflict continues into the beginning of the next year as well, with many protesting Harmon's governorship, and Harmon using the Associators to force his will. In early 1691 the now retired William Wentworth gives an impassioned speech urging the colony to think about the values of religious toleration that the colony was founded on, that is now engrained in English law, and to not undermine the system of government the colony has created. This causes a large shift in public opinion in the Trenton area, and in March the Associators suffer a defeat in the east of the city while attempting to arrest Wentworth for "disrupting the peace". Two months later a detachment of soldiers arrives from England intent on restoring the peace, with its leader Sir Robert Eden, 1st Baronet, becoming an acting governor. Harmon is eventually forced to vacate the capital, but refuses to step down as governor, leading to a confusion situation in which multiple governors are in power. Harmon travels to Gloucester, a nearby center for Puritanism, while Eden dissolves the current assembly and orders fair elections be carried out. The result is still a Puritan majority, however Catholics and other groups are much better represented. Meanwhile Harmon loses the military backing of Blant, who seeks to distance himself from any wrongdoing, and Harmon is arrested in late 1691. Under Eden a law is passed guaranteeing religious toleration, similar to what was passed in England. Thomas Lawrence, a moderate Puritan and former governor, is elected governor for 1692. The English soldiers return to England, however, a few years later Eden returns to Strafford Bay on his own, and becomes an influential politician. On an unrelated note William Wentworth makes a deal with the English monarch to create the Baronetage of Strafford Bay as a means to raise money for both the colony and for the English monarch, based on the system used in Nova Cambria. The deal states that the king will create a series of baronets, each of whom must support ten colonists for two years, and pay a certain amount to the king and to the Earls of Strafford.
- Grand Duchy of Flaadland:
- Richard Woodwick the Younger was able to make his case in front of the Parliament of Scotland. Although they ratified the existence of the Grand Duchy of Flaadland, he is dismayed that it is still considered a colony and that he and his fellow Flaadlander deputies cannot seat in the Parliament. He stay for the rest of the year in Scotland, encouraging the people to migrate to the colony. The last of the Covenanters are definitively interested, and the Scottish Parliamentarians are helping the colonization effort. After all, they just ratified the first colonial noble domain, and so have a desire to keep it well.
- In the Grand Duchy, the Flaadlanders are surprised when the Sakawes traverse the Leary River to raid Craigmouth. The raid takes the town by storm and is extremely bloody. The fact that the Sakawes were armed with European weapons was not missed by the people of Craigmouth. Following this, the Grand Duke is pressed to take actions against the invading natives. MacRoy in particular vent the frustration of his followers over the issue, claiming that the Grand Duchy had the responsibility to protect them and that the attack should have never happened. Clearly way over his head, Grand Duke Charles leave the whole thing in the hands of Plair, who himself give full commands of the troops to Archibald Neivy. Neivy is able to push back another assault from the Sakawes. Just before the arrival of winter in late 1690, Neivy is also able to establish a beach head on the other side of the Leary River. However, Neivy is wounded during this assault and dies in the following days.
- The death of Neivy shock a lot of Flaadlanders, who considered him a national hero. On the advice of Bexley, the Grand Duke give Neivy funerals with full honors. During the ceremony, MacRoy complain about how a son of Flaadland died in a war while the Grand Duke remained behind the line. Understanding he needed to go if he wanted to stay in power, Grand Duke Charles crosses the Leary River in February 1691. The war effort is put in the hands of Charles Morrington, another English who followed Charles FitzRoy in his exile after the failed coup. Morrington was a military man in England, and so is the best equipped to lead the war. The Grand Duke however still act as the leader of the whole expedition south. After a series of successes, Morrington advice the Grand Duke to return on the northern side and instead prepare some naval support. Happy to oblige, Grand Duke Charles make his way to Clarendon, where with the aid of Plair put to good use the ships built under Wotton. It is at that time that Richard Woodwick the Younger returns with news of the validation of the Duchy. This is a great boost to the stability of the Grand Duchy, and Bexley use this in his propaganda campaign, claiming that the Grand Duchy protected the Flaadlanders and their values, and that it would now be able to continue to do so. The combined assault of the Grand Duke’s ships and of Morrington’s militiamen in August 1791 lead to a key victory against the Sakawes. The fact that the Grand Duke was “leading” the fleet gave a great boost to his popularity among the militiamen, even though he did little during the battle. The following battle goes less well, however, as the Sakawes are able to put the ship of the Grand Duke on fire. Charles barely escape the whole thing with his life. For the rest of the war, Charles would remain safely in Roberttown. Although they put a good fight and caused great casualties, the Sakawes were in the end entirely defeated by the Flaadlanders. Although Morrington was interested in some sort of settlements, the Flaadlanders weren’t. MacRoy demanded full annihilation of the tribes and organized a march right in front of Villiers Castle. Surprisingly, Bexley was also in favour of rejecting anything else than total conquest. Pressured from all sides, Charles relented. The Sakawes that were not killed were enslaved and brought back to the plantations. The territories south of the Leary River were now officially under the control of Flaadland, although it would take a few years before real settlements began to appear there.
- Although happy with his position, Grand Duke Charles begins missing the cosmopolitan life of the English court. He and the English exiles start organizing weekly banquets and other celebrations at Villiers Castle. Many urban elites like Malcom Bexley are also invited, and Grand Duke Charles encourage men of the upper class to come join him in Flaadland, whenever they are from England, Scotland or Ireland. This call is mostly answered by a few Irish and Scots, as most English don’t recognize the whole “Grand Duchy of Flaadland” and still see the Flaadlanders as radical madmen. One of those newcomers who arrive with the usual waves of migrants is, to everyone’s surprise, former governor John Canavan. Ever since his return to Ireland, Canavan had lost the favors of the Stuart, and since the ascension of William had been crippled in depts. So seeing in the offer of Grand Duke Charles a chance to flee his creditors and start a new life. The arrival of Canavan in 1693 was met by many protests, and MacRoy almost asked for the head of his former enemy. But this showed the change of balance that had operated in the colony. The radical religious landowners like MacRoy had begun losing their influence and power, replaced by the urban elite like Bexley who had access to the administration. This by no mean meant that the new elite was not Covenantist, but they were able to put political gains over religious issues, which the religious leaders were not. When in 1694, the Grand Duke asked MacRoy to be the priest for his marriage with Elizabeth Eford (now 16), MacRoy refuse. Bexley and Plair sight of relieve as this, as they feared MacRoy would use the marriage as a tribune. The marriage is celebrated in Covenantist traditions, which help the Grand Duke regain footing with many religious leaders. With his “little court” and his local administration, things seem to be going well for the Grand Duke. If things continued that way, he may enjoy the end of the century.
- Colony of Unamia (part of the Dominion of Borealia): We answer the call of fovernor Joseph Edmund and the rest of Borealia and begin training militiamen fully for war. After spending a great deal of time attacking the Dutch, many are reluctant to switch sides and work with the Dutch, and these hardliners are sent to the front against the natives. A large portion of our men are sent to the north where arms are most needed, and the threat of the French and Wanekani Confederacy is very strong, while the other half remains in the south to protect the western frontier of Unamia and the other colonies. The secret communications from Nauset Bay arrive indicating that a conspiracy is being planned to take down Governor Joseph Edmund and his government, and many of the former leaders of the colony are interested, although hesitant to act until the war is over and the colonies are safe. Edmund's deputy in Warwick, John Willard, intercepts the message however, and has a few prominent Unamians put to death, and warns Edmund, potentially putting the conspiracy at risk.
The Jacobite rebellion in Scotland is crushed by William III, with the help of several prominent Scottish noblemen. Richard Woodwick, with the help of Coventer nobleman Robert Hamilton, 2nd Baronet of Preston, negotiates support for the new king in exchange for William recognizing the Grand Duchy of Flaadland as a Scottish colony, which he does reluctantly, before the two men leave Scotland to return to the colony.
The Willimite war in Ireland ends with the Treaty of Limerick, solidifying William III's rule over England, Scotland, and Ireland.
One of Charles Fitzroy's younger brothers, Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond, decides to travel to the Grand Duke's court in search a spot in the Grand Duke's council, and to make his fortune in the colonies.
- Colony of New Britain: The chaos from Green's Rebellion is quelled and the colony focuses its efforts on the war with the Monatan Confederacy also is ended in a victory. As a result the Colony of New Britain continues to expand heavily into the former territories of the Monatens, Appomatucks, Socetans, Nanesmons, and the Soanokes, as the natives are beaten back, and the confederacy begins to disintegrate. Settlers flock to set up plantations around the well defended forts located on the frontier, and several of these forts grow into full towns within the next few years. In 1695 the town of Winchester is founded south of Arlington and west of Yorktown, connecting the plantations between these areas. Likewise, Newcastle is founded south of Swansea the following year. The area coveted by Swansea and the settlers of Bates County is also claimed and settled.
- Colony of Nauset Bay (part of the Dominion of Borealia): In Cambridge Joseph Edmund is alerted by his Unamian deputies of a possible conspiracy to overthrow him and break up the Dominion of Borealia, prompting him to enact immediate retaliation against the suspected ringleaders. First he orders any remaining Puritan armies in the capital area to attack the natives to the north, fabricating news of an immediate invasion. This prompts most of the militiamen to move into Wanekani territory, as they seek to help defend their colony first and foremost. Then Edmund has the suspected ringleaders rounded up, and they are either imprisoned or executed, depending on the level of evidence levied against them. He has the small number of soldiers from England who accompanied him, any Anglican regiments, and any others chiefly loyal to him over the Nauset Bay regime to remain in Cambridge and the surrounding area, under the guise of protecting the capital from a possible surprise French naval attack. Meanwhile the rest of the Borealian army is concentrated toward capturing French Acadia, and two fronts break out; the fight around Port Royal and the rest of that island, and in the outskirts of Nova Cambria. A large army under the command of Percy Kirke, numberng some 2,500 Englishmen, 200 natives, and 10 field guns, is sent to launch an invasion of Lake Delaporte and the city of Beauport. Although the group suffers heavy casualties on the road toward the French colonies, when they reach Delaporte they are reinforced by some 1,000 Loyahanna who are recruited by the English native allies, and in the ensuing Battle of Beauport the English secure a major victory. Although the Loyahanna focus on the rest of the French towns in the area, Kirke attempts to launch an invasion of the French capital at Lévis, and manages to coordinate a naval force of another 500 men and 16 warships to meet up with him. Although the English fight valiantly and damage the French city, they are ultimately repulsed, and later that year Kirke retreats by sea. When he returns to Cambridge Kirke ends up being removed from government by Edmund, and instead command is given to John Bridgar. After the defeat in the north for the next few years the English focus their attacks on Acadia.
- Colony of Carolina: The colony continues to expand and grow along the coast, while the area around Charleston primarily becomes the center of several large settlements. The other settlements of note are spread out heavily along the coast, so that the government in Charleston largely leaves the other cities alone to rule the surrounding area autonomously. About half way between Charleton and southern New Britain the settlement of Albemarle becomes the largest settlement in the north. South of Charleston the town of Newport also becomes a prominent settlement. Former governor Thomas Moore leads a group to settle the area directly south of Charleston, and that becomes the town of Moorestown.
- Grand Duchy of Flaadland:
- In 1695, Richard Woodwick the Younger and the 2nd Baronet of Preston (William Hamilton) successfully helped King William III deal with a Jacobite Plot. Their success allowed them to push for the recognition of the Grand Duchy. Richard Woodwick is welcomed home with a great reception, but to most Flaadlanders it is the 2nd Baronet of Preston who is the true hero of the day, as he helped them without anything in exchange (while helping them was expected from Woodwick). Hamilton is personally invited to the Grand Duchy by Grand Duke Charles. When he arrive, the Covenanter nobleman is received by the biggest crowd seen on the harbors. Preston then followed by being “the man of the day” at one of the Grand Duke’s banquets. He then goes on a tour of the towns, and in Woodwick said in front of MacRoy and his congregation “I have rarely seen men with so much care for our traditions and our souls.” Soon, Preston is praised in almost every church sermon, and soon after the beginning of his tour the first town on the south side of the Leary River is named Hamiltontown in his honor. The popularity of Preston is so big that he is beginning to outshine the Grand Duke, which make the later nervous. When even Bexley begins praising the man, and that some people in the streets begin asking why Preston, a fierce Covenanter, isn’t there Grand Duke, Charles decide he had enough. Preston is adviced by Morrington and Plair (on orders of the Grand Duke) that he should shorten his stay, which he does, departing back for Scotland a week later. Still, many religious leaders, including James MacRoy, would continue to write to Preston for the rest of their lives, many time implying they would be glad to stage an uprising for him.
- Following this, the colony would have to live through two high profile trials. The first one was the one of John Canavan, the former governor. MacRoy insisted that Canavan had opposed and tried to put an end to the beliefs agreed at the Woodwick Covenant. Since the Grand Duke had many time promised to keep and protect the Woodwick Covenant, he insisted that Canavan was a criminal. Although both Canavan and the aging Plair were against it, Bexley agreed with the rhetoric, insisting that the Woodwick Covenant was basically law at this point. Canavan, for his part, refused to be judged by the Flaadlanders, knowing full well that they were out for his blood. The Grand Duke had to send Plair to England so he could bring back with him willing members of the Court of Chancery (which was hard to find). The members of the Court of Chancery saw the whole thing as a joke, since all of them were Anglican. The verdict was in favor of Canavan. However, MacRoy used the right to appeal to the House of Lords, which in this case meant appealing to the Grand Duke (he was the only Lord in Flaadland, after all). This basically made the trip of the Court of Chancery useless, which angered those that had come. In the end, Canavan was acquitted, although the affair leaved a bad taste in everyone’s mouth, especially as MacRoy died in 1699, still angry about the whole affair.
- The second trial was the one of Joseph Clay, a merchant from Strafford Bay. Clay was accused to have killed with his partner a Flaadlander farmer in the north. He was subsequently arrested by the Longmen, although his partner made it out of the colony and back to his home in Strafford Bay. The fact that a Straffordian was being judged in Flaadland was controversial, a topic made even more controversial by the fact that the dead farmer was Kuende Covenant, the first freed slave. This restarted debates over slavery in the colony. Learning from their past mistake, the trial was directly put in front of the Grand Duke and a small council made of members of “his court”. Clay actually defended himself fairly well, and it was actually becoming clear that he had nothing to do with the whole thing, and that he was just at the wrong place at the wrong time. But the crowd assembled around to see the trial would have none of it and demanded justice. Once again, the Grand Duke felt pressured by the masses and voted Clay guilty, as did his fellow jury (they didn’t really care either way). Clay was hanged on February the 2nd, 1697.
- In 1697, Charles Lennox, another bastard of Charles II, decided to make his way to the Grand Duchy, hoping to find a good position in the colonial administration and possibly making himself rich. He took a boat in June 1697 with his wife Anne Brudenell and his 2 years old daughter Lady Louisa. When he arrived, Lennox was personally received by his half-brother. Although Lennox was welcomed at the celebrations in Villiers Castle and was given a mansion for him and his family (the one used by the Grand Duke when he first arrived), his demand to immediately serve on the ducal administration is rejected at the insistence of Bexley, who was rubbed the wrong way by Lennox during a recent celebration. Lennox, undeterred, decide to place his mark on the colony never less. During the two ensuing years, Lennox would introduce two things that would change the Grand Duchy forever. The first one was the cricket, a sport that Lennox promoted back in England. He travelled through the towns, explaining the rules and trying to organize display matches so the crowd could learn about it. He also organized many games in Villiers Castle, during one of which he befriended John Canavan. In 1698, Lennox made himself famous when he interfered in a dispute between the Longmen and the southern militia, offering them to settle the issue over a match of cricket. A better administrator than the Grand Duke, Lennox quickly turned the match in an event, and even dedicated it to the Grand Duke’s newborn, Robert FitzRoy (named after Sir Robert Wotton). The event was a success, and cricket growingly became more and more popular in Flaadland. The second thing introduced by Lennox was Freemasonry. Lennox had been the Lodge Master of Chichester in 1696, and so was a freemason himself. He quickly gained a following among both English nobles and the Flaadlander liberal elite, and in March 1799 officialised the Lodge of Roberttown, of which he was the Lodge Master. Seeing the multiple successes of his half-brother (although he had no idea about the Freemasonry), Grand Duke Charles finally invite Lennox in the administration by the end of 1699 against the protests of Bexley, who was slowly being ousted from Charles’s inner circle ever since the tour of Preston in the Grand Duchy. With the competent Lennox now on the in, Bexley would have to work harder than ever if he didn’t want to be on the out.
- Strafford Bay Colony: With the chaos of the "Protestant Revolution" over in the government, the colony returns to normal and tries to put the bloodshed behind. In the 1695 elections Puritans become the largest group in the assembly, followed by Anglicans and other Protestants, while Catholics control a very small minority. A bill is proposed similar to the English Test Act intending to forbid all Catholics from government positions, but the measure is narrowly defeated, as most Protestants simply don't want to cause anymore conflict, especially with the memory of English soldiers arriving in the colony fresh in their minds. Although the colonial government is officially supportive of William III, and the vast majority of the population is as well, Strafford Bay retains its reputation as a refuge for supporters of the House of Stuart, and a large number of Jacobite supporters enter the colony. Among the group is a number of former Jacobite lords and commanders, including some disgraced by the English Parliament, and others simply seeking to distance themselves from the English crown. Among those to travel to Strafford Bay is Henry Jermyn, Earl of Dover, one of James II's officers before defecting after the Battle of the Boyne, a battle which had claimed the lives of his brother William. Instead he relocates to Strafford Bay, and his son James and his nephew John both become baronets after paying a large sum to the crown. Henry Jermyn becomes a popular Jacobite figure in the colony, and a personal friend of William Wentworth, who hosts the family on numerous occassions at the family palace, Mount Ormond. In 1696 William Wentworth passes at the age of seventy, and his titles pass to Thomas Wentworth (b. 1672), William's second cousin. Thomas is in England at the time of his relative's death, serving as a general in the military and advisor to the king. A few years later his is created the first Duke of Strafford for his service. In the meantime Thomas dispatches his brother, Charles, to oversee the family property in Strafford Bay, and in 1698 Charles is elected governor of the colony. Charles Wentworth enters the colony's politics during a rough period in its history, with paramilitary factions such as the Associators still operating in small numbers. Although technically guilty of numerous heinous crimes, Nehemiah Blant of the Associators was eventually pardoned, after he aided in the arrest of Harmon. He manages to become a legitimate commander in the colony's military, and is stationed as far away from the capital as possible, headquartered at Fort Stuart, and tasked with watching the area bordering the Grand Duchy of Flaadland. When news reaches the colony in early 1697 of Joseph Clay's death it immediately causes some controversy in Trenton, with some calling the hanging tyrannical and murder. One influential figure, an Anglican preacher from Scotland named James Graham, criticises the Grand Duchy and compares the act to the injustices inflicted by King James II in the lead up to his removal from power. As a result public opinion shifts slightly against Coventers, of which there are hardly any in the colony, but the situation isn't escalated thanks to Blant choosing to quell the unrest in the west of the colony, rather than fuel it. A year later when Charles Wentworth becomes the new governor he seeks to repair the relationship between the two colonies, seeing as the Grand Duke's ideology is similar to his own. Robert Eden goes on to become a high ranking English officer, and is eventually created 1st Baron of Avon, but his time in the colony of Strafford Bay remains with him, and in 1699 he decides to travel to the colony once more, this time with his family as a settler.
- Flaadland Dip: Following the advice of his brother Charles Lennox, the Grand Duke offer to help mend the relationship between the Flaadlanders and Straffordians (is it Straffordian or Stafforder?) by organizing a match of cricket between the elite of the two colonies. If needed, the Grand Duke is willing to travel north to Strafford Bay for a game.
- Strafforder Diplomacy: The governor accepts the offer, and suggests that a match be arranged in the capital of Trenton.
- Colony of Unamia (Part of the Dominion of Borealia): The war continues against the French and their native allies, with Unamian militiamen contributing heavily to the fighting. By this time the former tribes of the confederacy united by Wamsutta is more or less destroyed. This is solidified when in 1696 Wamsutta is killed in battle and his head is displayed on the end of a pike. The colony goes on to officially claim all remaining territory west of Unamia, despite any protests from the Dutch citizens moving into the area as well, as the Unamians have little love for the neighboring Dutch. A large portion of our raised soldiers are dedicated to defending and claiming this area, while others return home to their families, and many of which begin planning to move into the new territory. This is encouraged by Joseph Edmund's deputy, John Willard, who seeks to strengthen Unamia during his time in office. Some of the forts in the south and close to the border in the west become the new centers of small towns that crop up as the settlers migrate west. In 1697 James Leigh is tasked with leading any remaining forces north to aid in pushing back the French allies around the nearby lakes region, and he links up with the Loyahanna to this end.
The so-called Eleven Years' War ends with a French victory in 1698, resulting in France gaining some territory from the Holy Roman Empire. The war's end confirms English control of Port Royal, but the rest of the borders revert to status quo ante bellum. Additionally the war solidifies William III as king of England.
In 1702 William III of England dies, and is succeeded by his sole child, William IV, born in 1681.
The peace does not last, as in 1701 Charles II of Spain dies, and the War of the Spanish Succession begins between France and the powers of Austria, Prussia, the Dutch Republic, England, and more. By 1702 the Americas are at war again, with the Spanish and French threatening the Colony of Carolina, and the French and their native allies launching an invasion of Borealia.
- Colony of Carolina: The colony grows significantly as people migrate from the Kingdom of England and the other parts of the British isles, including some from Ireland and the Kingdom of Scotland. The major settlements, such as Charlestown see major improvements, with a dock and shipyard being constructed in the city to help facilitate trade and shipping to England. Plantations spring up all around the major settlements, primarily growing cash crops such as tobacco, which is then shipped back to England for sale. When word reaches us of the outbreak of the War of the Spanish Succession, and the subsequent outbreak of hostilities between the English colonies and the French and Spanish colonies, the governor of Carolina orders the construction of a few forts in the south to protect the major settlements from incursions from Spanish Florida. Some levies are raised, with militia men being trained and readied in case an attack comes.
- Colony of Nauset Bay (Part of the Dominion of Borealia): News of the treaty signing, which ends the war against the French and others, reaches us in 1698 and the soldiers of the colony of Nauset Bay gladly return to their homes and farms in the south. We commence repairing the damaged towns of the colony, and send some men and supplies to help rebuild the more heavily damaged sections of Borealia, notably New Berkshire and New Haven. Many of the successful generals of the conflict return to Cambridge and become influential members of Joseph Edmund's council. Notably, Percy Kirke is not involved in the government, after being rejected by Edmund after his failure in the invasion of New France. Sylvanus Alden eventually steps down as head of the colonial army, and John Bridgar is appointed in his place. William March returns from Port Royal and is also well received, becoming an influential advisor to the governor. With the threat of French invasion over for the time being, the political opponents of Joseph Edmund begin organizing. Many of the officers in the war are persuaded to keep their men raised and prepare for a possible attack to oust Edmund. In 1700 the Puritans make their move, first by instructing the representatives of New Berskhire to stage a revolt. Puritan leader Jacob Bayard answers this call, and orders the Puritan militias of the northern colonies to march on Dover and oust Edmund's deputy, Thomas Revett. "Bayard's Rebellion" is initially successful, with some 2,000 colonists marching into the city. After some initial skirmishes, Revett flees to a fort inside the city, but he eventually surrenders after a few days siege. Edmund is horrified by the news, but doesn't take the bait of vacating the city personally. Instead John Bridgar is ordered to lead a small army to retake Dover and reestablish order. Cambridge is now left with less defenders, however, and soon after the rebellious militiamen are ordered into the city. Rather than completely surrender, Edmund attempts to negotiate with the rebels, offering to call a convention in the city to create a new constitution for the dominion, in which the individual constituents will have greater autonomy. The offer gives the rebels pause, while in the mean time Edmund sends out letters to nearby Charlestown and Rockport, as well as New Haven and New Netherlands, asking for immediate military aid. After a week the ceasefire ends and there is a skirmish in southern Cambridge. Edmund manages to flee across the Charles River to Rockport, and marches north with a small number of loyal supporters to meet up with John Bridgar's army and the other northern garrisons. Percy Kirke, who comes out of retirement in support of the rebels, manages to chase after Edmund with a small number of soldiers, despite orders from the rebel leaders to halt. In the ensuing Battle of Derry, Edmund is defeated, although he personally escapes. Increase Holt is declared the new governor of the Colony of Nauset Bay in Cambridge, and a civil war begins for the fate of the Dominion of Borealia. John Bridgar, who had secured Dover once more, hands over the city to Joseph Edmund, who makes the city a temporary capital. This time he sends requests directly to England, asking for soldiers to put down the rebellion. In the meantime soldiers from New Haven and the Acadian border with France are called south, leaving the frontier with France and their native allies notably undefended. Meanwhile the Dutch, eager to attack their former enemies, send 2,500 men north under the command of Maurice van den Bergh. Over the next few months several skirmishes and minor battles occur in northern Nauset Bay. The next major engagement comes in April with the Siege of Portland, which ultimately sees a loyalist defeat, and the capture of John Bridgar. Around this time, however, news reaches us of the War of the Spanish Succession, and French troops easily cross over the border into New Haven, causing massive damage. A ceasefire is quickly negotiated in Portland, with both sides agreeing to unite against the common enemy. Edmund is to stay outside the borders of Nauset Bay, however during this time he continues to prepare. When the small detachment of soldiers from England arrives he has them garrison Dover, while those sent to battle the French are primarily local militias. Another expedition is planned to Port Royal to help seize the rest of the island once more, and William March is selected as its leader, however he is forced to take on Puritan co-commander John Walton. Together they set sail with 2,500 men for the north. The French are repulsed from New Haven by the end of the year, but poor coordination causes confusion among the ranks, and we fail to capitalize on these early victories.
- Grand Duchy of Flaadland: By early 1700, Bexley has begun falling out of favor with the ducal court of Grand Duke Charles. Before, Bexley was the key administrative figure of the regime, working the laws and implementing what he believed to be the best options for the Grand Duchy. But now, Charles Lennox has worked his way to the inner circle of the Grand Duke, thanks to the support of Plair, who had always disliked the influence of Bexley over the Grand Duke. When the Grand Duke makes his way north to Trenton for the game of cricket, it is Lennox and not Bexley that is left in charge of the affairs of the Grand Duchy. But it is only in 1701 that Bexley is unceremoniously removed from the court. Bexley would then spend the rest of his life alone in retreat, writing multiple books about his political ideas, which were greatly influence by his political career at court. In court, the migrated nobles begin to take more and more of an important position under the leadership of Plair and Lennox, which please the Grand Duke. Although the liberal Flaadlander elite is still present, the nobles that came from England, Scotland and Ireland are slowly taking control of the administration.
- Colony of Unamia (Part of the Dominion of Borealia): The colony recovers during the interim period between the two large colonial wars. The colony attempts a plan to have Governor Joseph Edmund's deputy overthrown when news reaches the colony of the conspiring going on in the Nauset Bay Colony. The Puritan leaders of the colony attempt to raise forces in Warwick, however, the new deputy, Richard Wiggin, learns of the conspiracy before hand and has the men arrested. War veteran and retired politican Jeremy Clarke is among those named, and controversially he is arrested too, causing uproar among many of the older citizens of the colony, and those who lived through the turbulent times of King Ezra's War about three decades prior. Although not implicated in the conspiracy, James Leigh also comes under fire after he voices support for Clarke, and Wiggin orders him out of the colony to lead the western garrisons. In 1700 the Dutch army arrives within the colony's borders, causing some alarm. The Puritans of the colony, and those loyal to the rebel cause, decide to organize an ambush against the army as it passes through the countryside, with many veterans of the recent war organizing to join the attack. The rebels, led by Edward Grove, manage to successfully damage the Dutch army, delaying their entrance into Nauset Bay, however him and the rebels are forced to flee into hiding to avoid reprisal from the deputy in Warwick. For the rest of the year Grove and Wiggin clash with each other in a series of ambushes, and the Dutch advance is largely stalled. When news of the outbreak of war comes, the Dutch return to defend their homes, and Wiggin calls for the colony to raise its levies once more to attack the French and their allies. There is a large movement to resist the call, as Grove hopes to overthrow Wiggin while he is distracted. Overall though many choose to put their differences aside and join the war effort against the common enemy that is the French.
- Colony of New Britain: The colony flourishes now that the chaos of Green's Rebellion, and the threat of the Monaten Confederacy invading, is dealt with adequately. During this time several major settlements grow into decently sized cities, with Lincoln and Norfolk being the largest, and others such as Bethesda in the north, Somersburg in County Henry, and Fairfax in Burke County also growing significantly. The College of William & Mary is founded in Somersburg, becoming the second oldest university in the English colonies. The new governor, James Blair, begins his term in 1700 by passing a number of laws to fix provincial records and prevent future rebellions. For the first time the governor mandates that New Britain diversify its crops, as the colony is heavily dependent on tobacco for almost all of its exports. Cotton and flax both begin to be harvested, and Blair also helps create the first textile manufacturies in the colony, as the many wars in Europe are making it difficult for the colonists to ship their raw materials back to England. There is also a push under James Blair's leadership to colonize and incorporate the many territories seized from the natives in the recent war. He has William County and Mary County created in honor of the recent monarchs, and creates a few counties stretching from York County to the town of Suffolk.
- Colony of Strafford Bay: The delegation from the Grand Duchy of Flaadland is received in Trenton for the first ever cricket match in the colony. The game turns out to be a big success, and even after the Grand Duke returns to Flaadland the sport continues to be played in the colony. The colony experiences a period of peace at home following the chaos of the earlier decade, although a large number of volunteers do participate in the war against France, as some of France's allied native allies are spotted just north and west of the colony's territorial borders. Charles Wentworth, the governor and acting representative for the Duke of Strafford resigns in 1701, deciding to focus on his private affairs outside politics. A Puritan named Benjamin Wilson replaces him as governor, after receiving the backing of ehemiah Blant of the Associators.
A Spanish-native army invades the Colony of Carolina and lays siege to Charleston, before being eventually repulsed.
- New Sweden: After years of stagnation, Lord Hans takes charge of the colony and advertises it back at home with us getting to know the natives and with us starting to adapt to the climate, we begin to make farms for livestock on drier and flatter lands with us using water from the mouths of the rivers for irrigatory purposes. With more houses being established as well, more space is made for colonists. Wild Cotton is harvested and used as a source of fabric for the poor but we realize that it is more efficient of use then wool and other products that farmers begin to use it to sell as a "better quality" and "tamed" crop to hike up prices leaving the poor with wild but rare cotton and having the wild variety be driven out and sparce making people depend on the farmers. We notice an extensive die off of the natives with bumps covering their corpses. We have no way of truly treating the people so we helplessly watch them drop like flies by the dozen. Some smug investors use dead villages to build more homes and farms with what is left being sent back to Sweden to be sold to the rich which becomes a business. We expand along the coast as fishing grows to be a primary job in the colony.
- Grand Duchy of Flaadland: In January 1703, Plair dies at the age of 72. The second son of the Grand Duke, born a month later, is named William in honor of the late advisor, who played a key role in the life of Charles FitzRoy. After all, Plair supported the Grand Duke even before his failed plot in 1685. Just like Neivy before him, Plair receives a funeral with full honors. With him out of the picture, the main advisor of the Grand Duke becomes his brother, Charles Lennox. Lennox had proven many times his capacity to act as an administrator, and Lennox once again show that he has the skills to accomplish his projects. The Grand Duke asks Lennox to work on improving the public structures of the colony. So Lennox begin a massive project to build roads between the various settlements and towns of northern side of the Leary River. This new project receive the nickname of the Lennox Network, although it is never officially adopted. In the North, the Longmen are beginning to look useless, with all the Indians in the Flaadlander territories now dead or exiles. They themselves are restless due to the lack of action, and many of them fear that their official statue would be removed by the Grand Duke if he realize that they are of no use to the Grand Duchy. In search of a fight, some Longmen begin to raid the Nunsee borders, which cause a lot of frictions between Flaadlanders and Nunsees, although no war has yet to erupt. Finally, new fishing settlements begin to appear on the southern side of the Leary River, as Covenanters realize that Scotland is no longer for them and that Flaadland is mostly populated with people supporting their ideas. Lennox encourage those new settlers to also build small farms, hoping to break to Woodwick System, and the power of the religious landowners with it.
- Colony of New Britain: James Blair is reelected as governor of the colony after becomes particularly popular among the wealthy plantation owners of the colony. The College of William and Mary finishes construction and opens in late 1702, becoming the second college of its kind in the English colonies of North America. Governor Blair takes a vested interest in public education, not only allotting funding to the construction of the College of William and Mary, but ordering the construction of another public school in Lincoln. To increase funding Governor Blair begins a more expansionist trade policy with the other English colonies. The small colonial navy of the colony is bolstered and expanded, with a shipyard being constructed in Norfolk to help build and repair ships. These ships are to guard the large convoys traveling to England, but also to guard new trade routes with the Grand Duchy of Flaadland, the Colony of Carolina, and the Colony of Strafford Bay, in an effort to offset the damages done by the French and their allies at sea. When it becomes clear that piracy is becoming a problem in the south, Governor Blair threatens to cut off trade with any port that harbors or buys from known pirates. Meanwhile the colony expands significantly as more settlers venture into the newly pacified frontier. The southern bank of the Rappahanoc River is fully settled, with the area between the Rappahanoc and the Burke River becoming the site of numerous new plantations. There is a push in the southern part of the colony to expand due west as well.
- Colony of Nauset Bay (part of the Dominion of Borealia): The colony's government focuses its full efforts against the French, with militiamen being sent to secure the region north of the Dominion of Borealia and around the colony of Nova Cambria. Militia men are also sent to retake Lake Delaporte after the region was ceded back to France under the terms of the previous treaty. John Bridgar, eager to distance himself from the politics of Cambridge, leads the main Nausetian army in the Lake Delaporte region personally, while former Deputy of Unamia, John Willard, becomes the new head of the colonial army, operating from the city of Portland. There continues to be an uneasy peace between the colonists of Nauset Bay, headquartered in Cambridge, and the Dominion of Borealia government, headquartered in Portland, with Governor Joseph Edmund still secretly plotting to crush the rebellion in the south. The governor praises deputy Richard Wiggin's actions against Edward Grove in Unamia, and sends a force of loyal troops from England to help quell the unrest in Unamia, claiming that Grove is violating the ceasefire negotiated between the two sides of the civil war. The expedition led by John Walton and William March, alongside the native Nova Cambrian soldiers, manages to capture the remainder of the French positions near Port Royal, which proves to be an important victory in the war. William March decides to lead an expedition west onto the mainland to aid in northern Nova Cambria, while John Walton returns south with a small number of militiamen, arriving in Portland. Walton becomes a proponent of a diplomatic solution between the Puritans of Cambridge and the Borealian leadership, and begins drafting a solution proposing that the colonies be allowed high levels of autonomy, while a federal government be established with the right to tax and raise soldiers from all the colonies. Edmund reluctantly sends Walton at the head of a delegation, also including officers Nathaniel Wade and John George, to Cambridge to meet with the Puritan leadership, led by Increase Holt. Holt meanwhile sends delegates to England to personally ask the king to restore the independent colonies and dismantle the Dominion of Borealia.
- Colony of Carolina: The Spanish attack against the city of Charleston heavily damages the city, but luckily the inhabitants of the city are able to mount a defense and repulse the invaders from the colony's territory. The attack comes as a wake up call to the inhabitants of the colony, and the government quickly orders the creation of a militia, which will begin training and drilling in case the Spanish arrive once more. Defenses are constructed in the city of Charleston, including a wall around the northern part of the city, and guards are posted at these locations to watch for any threats. The other major settlements see similar development as well, and a number of forts begin construction in the frontier as a first line of defense against the Spanish. In 1703 the colony decides to launch a preemptive strike against the Spanish before they can regroup and assault Charleston once more, and an expedition is sent due south to attack northern Florida. In order to amplify the damage done by our attacks, we begin making treaties with the local natives, in the hopes that they will carry out attacks for us. The result is a proxy war in northern Florida, with different tribes supporting each side.
- Colony of Strafford Bay: The colony of Strafford Bay continues to grow and expand, following the return to stability under Charles Wentworth and his successors, after the Protestant Revoluton. Governor Benjamin Wilson leaves office in 1704, and Andrew Barclay becomes the new governor of the colony. Under his leadership there is a growing push to colonize the northern frontier, and several new settlements spring up in the area. Despite the uneasy peace in the capital brought on by the passage of the religious toleration legislation, several of the new communities are founded by religious minorities, with each settlement able to practice its religion of choice. Additionally the sport of cricket, introduced by the Grand Duchy of Flaadland, continues to grow in popularity, and a dedicated field is created outside Trenton. After receiving additional funding from the government this area is turned into a large park and garden grounds.
In 1705 William IV, King of England and Scotland dies without any issue, and his aunt Anne becomes queen.
A detachment of 1,500 soldiers, led by Joseph Gage, 1st Viscount Gage, is sent to Nauset Bay with the mission of restoring order to the region, but also has orders to replace Joseph Edmund.
- Colony of Nauset Bay (part of the Dominion of Borealia): The decision to sent soldiers to Unamia to arrest Edward Grove proves to be an unpopular decision, with men from southern Nauset Bay and Unamia flocking to Grove's ranks, and harassing the soldiers as they advance into the territory of Unamia. In the Battle of Warwick Richard Wiggin is overthrown, and Grove becomes the new governor of the colony of Unamia. The detachment of soldiers led by Joseph Gage, 1st Viscount Gage arrives in Cambridge in early 1705, unaware of Governor Joseph Edmund's withdraw to Dover. Instead he orders the surrender of Increase Holt and the Puritan leadership, and manages to secure the city relatively easily, with minimal losses. Holt and many other leaders are arrested and imprisoned, with some executed, quickly collapsing the rebellious government in the city of Cambridge. Nonetheless Puritan leadership continues to exist in other major cities, which hesitates before announcing any allegiance to Joseph Gage. Initially Joseph Edmund seeks to resist the news as well. Before news of Gage's arrival reaches Dover, Edmund declares his support for the new constitution created by John Walton, and accepts many of the Puritan demands. With Gage's soldiers marching on Dover, Joseph Edmund steps down from government, although as a result of Edmund's negotiating, the Puritan leadership demands that Gage recognize the agreement Edmund had made, which he reluctantly does. That leaves all the colonies of Borealia firmly within the Dominion, except for the colony of Unamia, and Gage marches on Warwick at the end of the year. For now most of the "Edmundian" politicans of the Dominion of Borealia are left in power, although John Willard is replaced by English officer Hugh Pitcairn. Meanwhile our forces continue to fight with the French and their native allies. John George is sent as a diplomat of the dominion to Nova Cambria, to begin drafting a possible treaty with the natives and the other colonies, but this proves fruitless.
- Colony of New Britain: The colony continues to see large amounts of growth and expansion. With the area around the colony more or less secured, the colony elects to send a small number of volunteers, mostly veterans of the previous wars, to help defend Charleston and the Colony of Carolina against the French and Spanish. The colony sees expansion primarily in the north up to the Rappahanoc River, and along its entire southern shore. Benjamin Harrison III, a member of one of the most influential families in the colony, becomes governor of New Britain
- Strafford Bay Colony: The colony sees a large push to expand and colonize the territory north of Strafford Bay. Due to the closer proximity to the Loyahanna tribe, the French Empire's colony of New France, and other potentially hostile native tribes, a series of forts are ordered further north than previously explored. Taking inspiration from the recent creation of a Grand Duchy in Flaadland, under the control of the Kingdom of Scotland, Thomas Wentworth makes a proposal to the English crown, that English should not fall behind, and should create a duchy in Strafford Bay. Essentially the lord proprietor of Strafford Bay and Duke of Strafford could be also christened duke within the colony, and appoint lords to a newly formed House of Lords in Trenton. After much persuasion the offer is accepted, and Thomas Wentworth travels to Strafford bay personally to take up the governor position in late 1704. The newly created House of Lords is considered controversial in the already established assembly, as the unlanded but still wealthy individuals of the colony, who previously dominated the colony's politics, see the move as an afront to their political power. For now the House of Lords is left extremely weak compared to the other elected body, especially considering the low number of applicable lords. A number of the previously created baronets, which were created by the King of England years prior, become the first members of this assembly, and are also granted new titles by the Duke of Strafford upon his arrival.
- Colony of Unamia (part of the Dominion of Borealia): Edward Grove, now in the position of governor but also in open rebellion against the Dominion of Borealia under Governor Joseph Edmund, begins to consolidate his control over Unamia, first by cracking down against those who fought against the Puritan regime in Warwick. For a period of less than a year the Colony of Unamia exists once more as an independent colony, although under constant threat of attack by the hostile French and their allies, and the Borealian forces technically sanctioned by the English government. Grove attempts to send a request to England to have the colony officially instated, and unlike the more Puritan-dominated Nauset Bay, he is willing to accept Anglicanism's coexistance in the colony, as Unamian society was built on the ideas of religious toleration. The offer comes too late however, as in 1705 Joseph Gage, 1st Viscount Gage marches into Unamian territory to put down the revolt. At first there is resistance, but the English soldiers easily overcome the local militias who are zealous enough to attack. Rather than see Warwick destroyed and his family and friends likely killed, Grove surrenders peacefully, also hoping to remain active in the colony and potentially dominate local politics. Gage accepts the offer, but on the condition that Edward Grove go into exile. He does so, fleeing to the Colony of Strafford Bay, where Puritan leaders have a presence through the Associators. Richard Wiggin, an Edmundian politican, petitions to have his old position as deputy restored, and Gage reluctantly relents, upon learning of Wiggin's military history under Joseph Edmund.
- Grand Duchy of Flaadland: The Grand Duke write a letter to his aunt, congratulating her on her ascension to the throne. The Grand Duke use this occasion to travel through the Grand Duchy to promote himself. But although he find support in many cities in the South, he quickly realize that the Longmen in the North were frustrated and angry at the regime. With the decline of the Woodwick System, thanks to the new small farm systems that appeared in the growing settlements south of the Leary River, the old religious elite had lost most of its power. The Grand Duchy also played a big role in this by promoting the urban elite over the religious elite, head of which was Bexley during the 1690’s. But now, the urban Flaadlander elite was also set aside, leaving the Grand Duchy in the hands of migrant aristocrats like Lennox or the late Plair. And more importantly, the Longmen had no war to distract them, leaving them to think about how they just exchanged old English overlords for new English overlords. In Roberttown, the urban elite was also beginning to get angry about the whole affair. Where they not the ones that had built the Grand Duchy? So why were they on the out now? Charles, on the advice of Lennox, decided to deal with both problems in one shot. The Grand Duke promoted many urban elite to post of leaderships and administration in the North. Their job, prepare the region for a future war. With who? Charles did not say, although everyone could guess that this would mean a return of the hostilities with the Nunsees.
- Colony of Carolina: The war efforts against the Spanish continue, with a large amount of funding going toward upgrading the military and making alliances with local natives. The volunteers from the Colony of New Britain are greatly appreciated, and the governor of Carolina writes a letter to the people of New Britain personally thanking them. An attack is launched, consisting of militia men from Carolina, the New Britain volunteers, and a large number of native allies, against the Spanish capital of Florida, the fortress of St. Augustine. The Siege of St. Augustine ultimately ends when the English fall back, and the Spanish receive a large number of reinforcements from Havana, Cuba. Regardless the colonists successfully damage the Spanish city, setting back their plans to potentially strike against the settlements of Carolina.
- New Sweden: the town of Camden is established in OTL Gloucester City.an influx of thousands of colonist move in establishing a new holding supplied by several pathways deeper inland in OTL King of Prussia name New Stockholm. Along the way though, more natives die as the result of disease with little that is left a minority, they also flee to nearby tribes but their immunity doesn't help as they themselves carry the bacteria and viruses spreading red irrritated bumps onto the native Populace reaching as far as OTL Lancaster with a Domino Effect. Besides the morbid event nicknamed the "Red Plague", more dockyards are mad and exploitation of cash crops like Tobacco are made with the crops being sent off to the Empire for manufacturing purposes and distribution with the colony quickly becoming more profitable. 3 warships complete construction in the name of the Empire and his majesty. Expansion inland continues with little native opposition due to the "Red Plague".
The Acts of Union are passed, uniting the kingdoms of England and Scotland into one kingdom, and Queen Anne becomes the first monarch of the newly created Kingdom of Great Britain.
- Colony of New Britain: The colony continues to grow and prosper, with many more new immigrants from Europe arriving and settling the colony's many settlements and countryside. We receive the word of thanks from the governor of the Colony of Carolina, and the news of the colony's volunteers is announced to the public of the colony, who anxiously await the return of their loved ones. The colony sees expansion primarily in the north up to the Rappahanoc River, and along its entire southern shore, and in the south, connecting areas near Suffolk, Germantown, and other new settlements. Benjamin Harrison III's governorship proves to be quite popular among the colonists of New Britain, and his term is renewed for the forseeable future.
- Colony of Nauset Bay (part of the Dominion of Borealia): In the beginning of 1708 representatives from across the Dominion of Borealia are called to meet in the city of Cambridge by the new governor, Joseph Gage, 1st Viscount Gage, in an effort to formally create a new constitution and government for the dominion, which had been promised by various leaders for the past several years. The event becomes known as the Constitution Convention of 1708, and sees copious amounts of debate among the various factions. Increase Holt dies while under house arrest, and his son, Solomon Holt, becomes one of the main Puritan leaders in Nauset Bay. After Increase Holt's passing, however, there is some infighting among the Puritan elite, with some calling for strict adherence to the old traditions, and some, led by John Stoddard, championing the liberalizing of Puritanism to help stop the slow decline of the Puritan population in the colonies. Also present is the "Edmundian" political party, led by former military officer John Walton, and also representated by such individuals as Nathaniel Wade, who advocate for a stronger centralized government. Although Walton and others make strong cases to the assembly gathered in Cambridge, ultimately the Puritan argument wins out, and henceforth each state of the Dominion is to be treated more or less independent, with a loose central government responsible only for certain matters, such as taxation and raising levies in war time. A new doctrine is created, nicknamed the Gage Compromise, essentially making it law that any individual community in the Dominion can choose its religious preference, but overall the colony as a whole have religious toleration. More specifically, the matter of religion is delegated to the individual colonies, so that if a Puritan government exists in any given town, that local government can declare that town a Puritan community, but they cannot force a neighboring town to become Puritan. Meanwhile the entirety of the Colony of Unamia is recognized as having universal religious freedom. The assembly also meets to discuss the war effort, as John George's diplomatic mission has so far proved unsuccessful. Hugh Pitcairn, as head of the military, leads a number of expeditions to help dislodge the French from Nova Cambria once and for all.
- Grand Duchy of Flaadland:
- The new migrants who arrive from Scotland speak of the Act of Union, which quickly makes everyone nervous. The Grand Duchy of Flaadland was dependant of the Kingdom of Scotland and its parliament. Now, it had been abolished and the only Parliament of this “Kingdom of Great Britain” was in London. Religious elites in Flaadland quickly began making noises and voice their opposition. At their head is Elice Boyce, a 35 years old pastor from Woodwick, the old stronghold of the late James MacRoy. Boyce refuse to obey any order from an Anglican parliament and begin screaming in the streets that the Union is the first step toward episcopacy in Flaadland. The unrest grow so much that by the end of 1707 Lennox advice his brother to ask Queen Ann for British troops to quell Boyce and his partisans. But Grand Duke Charles refuse, claiming that asking for help to the metropole would undermine the whole point of the Grand Duchy of Flaadland. Also, Charles is still convinced that he has the support of the liberal elite in Roberttown. However, many of them have turned their back on the Grand Duchy. Charles neverless call upon his former ally Malcolm Bexley, asking him for help. Although sick to the point of not being able to leave his bed, Bexley is still active politically. In his last action before his death, Bexley write a letter to Captain Lewis Norton, the Captain of the Longmen in Wottontown. Norton was always a close supporter of Bexley, so Bexley ask him to support the Grand Duchy, as supporting Boyce may lead to the end of the Grand Duchy and possibly civil war. Norton refuse to support Boyce, and the religious zealots that marched on Roberttown are quickly dispersed by the ducal militia in the South. Charles then make a public apparition, promising once again to respect the Woodwick Covenant and making concession to the liberal elite (as he had agreed with Bexley). This calm the population for now, but leaved a bad taste in the mouth of everyone.
- In March 1708, while he was coming back from Malcom Bexley’s funerals, the Grand Duke began coughing blood. His situation simply got worst in the following days even with the help of the best doctors in the Grand Duchy. On the 18th of March 1708, Grand Duke Charles FitzRoy died at the age of 45. He had been Grand Duke for the last 19 and a half years, his policies transforming Flaadland from a radical and religious “theocracy” to a developed an modern state with its own nobility. He and his advisors achieved many gains in term of autonomy for Flaadland, something that would have not been achieved otherwise. Charles’s death meant that his eldest son Robert FitzRoy, who was only 10 years old at the time, would become the new Grand Duke, with his second son William becoming the new heir. Since Robert was too young, the Grand Duchy needed a regency. Lennox, who was by now the main player in the ducal administration, seemed like the logical choice. But the 30 years old widow of his half-brother seemed decided to oppose him. Elizabeth Eford had remained quiet for most her marriage, but from her position as Grand Duchess she gained many allies and supporters. Most notably she was beloved by the Flaadlanders as she was one of their own, being born in the then colony and raised in Covenantism. With Charles dead, many in the Grand Duchy saw in Elizabeth the only thing that would stop the English elite to instate episcopacy. Lennox was not stupid and understood from the get go that episcopacy was out of the question, which was fine with him. From that point on, the administration felt into the hands of Lennox, while the affairs in the court of Villiers Castle being mostly controlled by Elizabeth. Both would continue to hinder each other.
- Lennox needed someone he could thrust to be in charge of the Southern Ducal Militia, the one that operated mostly around the Leary River. Unlike the Longmen, this militia was far more controlled by the Grand Duke and his administration. It was also far more ancient, dating its origins in the militia of David Leary during the First Sakawe War. Not thrusting the whole command of the militia to a Flaadlander after what happened in 1707 (especially with Boyce still around), Lennox named the now 68 years old John Canavan to the job. Although an incredibly unpopular choice, Canavan was by now a good friend of Lennox and a member of the Freemason Lodge of Roberttown, leaving him with enough allies to cover his back. Plus, he was actually a decent choice for the job, having some military experience from back in England and during his time as Governor of Flaadland almost 40 years ago. Although far more confident in the Englishmen than in the Flaadlanders, Lennox was never less aware that he needed to promote some Flaadlander to avoid another protest. So he promoted Clement Bartram, an extremely loyal Flaadlander and a member of the liberal elite of New Falkirk. Bartram was put in charge of the militiamen in New Falkirk, which was by now as loyal to the Grand Duchy and the Crown as you could get in Flaadland. Even Clarendon had lost some of its loyalist vigor in comparison, as New Falkirk expanded thanks to the royal governors, becoming the second biggest town in the colony after Roberttown. This continued under the Grand Duke, leaving the town fully loyal to Lennox and his English nobility.
- In 1709, Elizabeth takes the initiative by inviting Elice Boyce and offering him the office of Personal Tutor to both Grand Duke Robert and his brother William. This scandalize the court, but Elizabeth made it clear that she would decide what education her sons would have, and she decided to give them the right one. Although Robert show little interest in the details of Covenantism, the younger William ate up everything Boyce told him, and soon become a zealot believer in the Woodwick Covenant. In September, Elizabeth and Boyce want to have the children rechristened as Covenanters. However, Lennox and Canavan erupt just before the ceremony and put a stop to it, even forcing Boyce and the other pastors out of the Church to make sure that the ceremony is stopped. Intense negotiations followed, punctuated by a regrown religious movement thanks to the alliance of Elizabeth and Boyce. When the Longmen, who are already angry by the cancelation of their promised war, began showing their discontent with the incident of the church, Lennox realize that he has little room to act. In a meeting with Elizabeth, Lennox agree to Robert and William becoming Covenanters on the condition to Robert being betroth to his own daughter, Louisa Lennox. Elizabeth reluctantly agreed, realizing how becoming the father-in-law of the Grand Duke would probably strengthen Lennox. Although the affair is over as court is concerned, the populace is of another idea. Canavan entered a church and stopped a religious ceremony. This sacrilege is seen by many as the proof that the current ducal administration is there to instore Anglicanism in the colony. Tensions were rising as discontents began to talk among themselves…
- Colony of Strafford Bay: Thomas Wentworth, Duke of Strafford and current governor of the Colony of Strafford Bay, writes to the English government in London to express his support for the Acts of Union and the new Kingdom of Great Britain. There is a similar response across the colony, but overall the governance of the colony continues as normal. The Duke of Strafford's scheme to elevate the colony to ducal status proves successful, with a large number of potential lords filling the coffers of the colony's treasury, in addition to paying large sums to the monarch in London. Two of the longest serving baronets in the colony, Sir Robert Eden and Henry Jermyn, who is also the Earl of Dover, are both declared earls in 1708. Eden also becomes the head of the military, tasked with repulsing the French and the native tribes allied to them in the far north. Edward Grove, a Puritan leader and former governor of the Colony of Unamia, who was ousted by Joseph Gage, 1st Viscount Gage, and exiled from the Dominion of Borealia, arrives in Trenton. Grove becomes a well celebrated hero to the Puritans of the colony, as he famously fought to preserve the Puritan society of the Borealian colonies, and he quickly becomes a high ranking member of the Associators. Nehemiah Blant, now in his sixties, throws his full support behind Grove and his supporters, who becomes an influential speaker in the colonial government. When Thomas Wentworth chooses to step down from the position of governor in 1709, Edward Grove wins the subsequent election. Under his leadership the colony continues to expand, largely to the north, as the area becomes home to several new forts and defenses.
- Colony of Unamia (part of the Dominion of Borealia): With Edward Grove deposed the colony of Unamia becomes firmly under the control of Joseph Gage, 1st Viscount Gage and his Borealian government. Representatives from the colony attend the assembly in Cambridge, dubbed the Constitution Convention of 1708, to help draft the new government system of the Dominion of Borealia. Specifically the delegates from the Colony of Unamia make sure to push to preserve the colony's historic precedant of religious freedom, and if possible make that the law universally, to prevent more religion-based bloodshed. There is a push to claim and conquer all of the remaining territory between the colony and the Dutch-controlled colony of New Netherlands, to finally force out the hostile native tribes in that region. As such many of the raised Unamian troops who are idle due to the political instability, are ordered west to secure the frontier.